An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer’s memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language. Without an operating system, a сomputer is useless. Watch the video below to learn more about operating systems. Types of operating systems
Operating systems usually come pre-loaded on any computer you buy. Most people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but it’s possible to upgrade or even change operating systems. The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
Modern operating systems use a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). A GUI lets you use your mouse to click icons, buttons, and menus, and everything is clearly displayed on the screen using a combination of graphics and text.
Each operating system’s GUI has a different look and feel, so if you switch to a different operating system it may seem unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems are designed to be easy to use, and most of the basic principles are the same.
Microsoft Windows.Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. Over the years, there have been many different versions of Windows, but the most recent ones are Windows 10 (released in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7(2009), and Windows Vista (2007). Windows comes pre-loaded on most new PCs, which helps to make it the most popular operating system in the world.
Mac OS is a line of operating systems created by Apple. It comes preloaded on all new Macintosh computers, or Macs. All of the recent versions are known asOS X(pronounced O-S Ten), and the specific versions include El Capitan (released in 2015),Yosemite (2014), Mavericks (2013), Mountain Lion (2012), and Lion (2011).
According to Stat Counter Global Stats, Mac OS X users account for less than 10% of global operating systems—much lower than the percentage of Windows users (more than 80%). One reason for this is that Apple computers tend to be more expensive. However, many people do prefer the look and feel of Mac OS X over Windows.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a family of open-source operating systems, which means they can be modified and distributed by anyone around the world. This is different from proprietary software like Windows, which can only be modified by the company that owns it. The advantages of Linux are that it is free, and there are many different distributions—or versions—you can choose from.
According to StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users account for less than 2% of global operating systems. However, most servers run Linux because it’s relatively easy to customize.
To learn more about different distributions of Linux, visit the Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and Fedora websites, or refer to our Linux Mint Resources. For a more comprehensive list, you can visit MakeUseOf’s list of The Best Linux Distributions.
Windows is an operating system designed by Microsoft. The operating system is what allows you to use a computer. Windows comes preloaded on most new personal computers (PCs), which helps to make it the most popular operating system in the world.
Windows makes it possible to complete all kinds of everyday tasks on your computer – for example, you can use Windows to browse the Internet, check your email, edit digital photos, listen to music, play games, and do much more.
Timeline of OS Windows
|Windows 10||29th july 2015|
|Windows 8.1||17th October 2013|
|Windows 8||26th October 2012|
|Windows 7||22nd October 2009|
|WindowsVista||30th January 2007|
|Windows XP Professional x64||25th April 2005|
|Windows XP||25th October 2001|
|Windows ME||14th September 2000|
|Windows 2000||17th February 2000|
|Windows 98||25th June 1998|
|Windows 95||24th August 1995|
|Windows 3.1||April 1992|
|Windows 3.0||22nd May 1990|
|Windows 2.11||13th March 1989|
|Windows 2.10||27th May 1988|
|Windows 2.03||9th December 1987|
|Windows 1.04||April 1987|
|Windows 1.03||August 1986|
|Windows 1.02||May 1986|
|Windows 1.01||20th November 1985|
Explain the classification of OS
An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language. It manages the computer’s memory, processes, and all of its software and hardware, i.e. manages all the other programs in a computer.
Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. In addition, users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface such as a command language or a graphical user interface (GUI).
Classification of Operating systems: Multi-user, Multiprocessing, Multitasking, Multithreading, Real time.
All modern operating systems use a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). A GUI lets you use your mouse to click icons, buttons, and menus, and everything is clearly displayed on the screen using a combination of graphics and text.
The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and Linux.
An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system. This also includes managing the input and output devices, and assigning system resources.
Operating systems evolved as the solution to the problems that were evident in early computer systems, and coincide with the changing computer systems. Three cycles are clear in the evolution of computers, the mainframe computers, minicomputers and microcomputers, and each of these stages influenced the development of operating systems.
Now, advances in software and hardware technologies have resulted in an increased demand for more sophisticated and powerful operating systems, with each new generation able to handle and perform more complex tasks. The following report examines the development of operating systems, and how the changing technology shaped the evolution of operating systems.
First Generation Computers (1945-1955).
In the 1940’s enormous machines capable of performing numerical calculations were created. The machine consisted of vacuum tubes and plugboards, and programming was done purely in machine code. Programming languages were unheard of during the early part of the period, and each machine was specifically assembled to carry out a particular calculation.
These early computers had no need for an operating system and were operated directly from the operator’s console by a computer programmer, who had immediate knowledge of the computers design.
By the early 1950’s punched cards were introduced, allowing programs to be written and read directly from the card, instead of using plugboards.
Second Generation Computers (1955-1965).
In the 1950’s, the transistor was introduced, creating a more reliable computer. Computers were used primarily for scientific and engineering calculations and were programmed mainly in FORTRAN and assembly language.
As computers became more reliable they also became more business orientated, although they were still very large and expensive. Because of the expenditure, the productiveness of the system had to be magnified as to ensure cost effectiveness. Job scheduling and the hiring of computer operators, ensured that the computer was used effectively and crucial time were not wasted.
Loading the compilers was a time consuming process as each compiler was kept on a magnetic tape, which had to be manually mounted? This became a problem particularly when there were multiple jobs to execute written in different languages (mainly in Assembly or Fortran). Each card and tape had to be individually installed executed then removed for each program. To combat this problem, the Batch System was developed. This meant that all the jobs were grouped into batches and read by one computer (usually an IBM 1401) then executed one after the other on the mainframe computer (usually an IBM 7094), eliminating the need to swap tapes or cards between programs.
General Motors designed the first operating system called IBM 701. It was called input/output System, and consisted of a small set of code that provided a common set of procedures to be used to access the input and output devices. It also allowed each program to access the code when finished and accepted and loaded the next program. However, there was a need to improve the sharing of programs, which led to the development of the SOS (Share operating system), in 1959. The SOS provided buffer management and supervision for I/O devices as well as support for programming in assembly language. Around the same time as SOS was being developed, the first operating system to support programming in a high-level language was achieved. FMS (Fortran Monitoring System) incorporated a translator for IBM’s FORTRAN language, which was widely used as most programs where written in this language.
Third Generation Computers (1965-1980).
In the late 1960’s IBM created the System/360 which was a series of software compatible computers ranging in different power of performance and price. The machines had the same architecture and instruction set, which allowed programs written for one machine to be executed on another. The operating system required to run on this family of computers has to be able to work on all models, be backward compatible and be able to run on both small and large systems. The software written to handle these different requirements was OS/360, which consisted of millions of lines of assembly language written by thousands of different programmers. It also contained thousands of bugs, but despite this the operating system satisfactory fulfilled the requirements of most users. A major feature of the new operating system was the ability to implement multiprogramming. By partitioning the memory into several pieces, programmers where able to use the CPU more effectively then ever before, as a job could be processed whilst another was waiting for I/O to finish.
Spooling was another important feature implemented in third generation operating systems. Spooling (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) was is ability to load a new program into an empty partition of memory when a pervious job had finished. This technique meant that the IBM 1401 computer was no longer required to read the program from the magnetic tape. Mission of a job and returning of results had increased. This led designers to the concept of time-sharing, which involved each user communicating with the computer through their own on-line terminal. The SPU could only be allocated to 3 terminals, each job held in a partition of memory. Many time-sharing operating systems were introduced in the 1960’s, including the MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service). Developed by Bell Labs, MULTICS was written almost completely in high-level language, and is known as the first major operating system to have done so. MULTICS examined many new concepts including segmented memory, device independence, hierarchical file system, I/O redirection, a powerful user interface and protection rings.
The 1960’s also gave rise to the minicomputer, starting with the DEC PDP-1. Minicomputers presented the market with an affordable alternative to the large batch systems of that time, but had only a small amount of memory. The early operating system of the minicomputers were input/output selectors, and provided an interactive user interface for a single user, and ran only one program at a time.
By the 1970’s, DEC introduced a new family of minicomputers. The PDP-11 series had 3 operating systems available to use on the systems, a simple single user system (RT-11), a time sharing system (RSTS) and a real-time system (RSX-11).
RSX-11 was the most advanced operating system for the PDP-11 series. It supported a powerful command language and file system, memory management and multiprogramming a number of tasks.
Around the same time as DEC were implementing their minicomputers, two researchers, ken Thomspson and Dennis Richie were developing a new operating system for the DEC PDP-7. Their aim was to create a new single-user operating, and the first version was officially released in 1971. This operating system, called UNIX became very popular and is still used widely today.
Fourth Generation Computers (1980-1990)
by the 1980’s, technology had advanced a great deal from the days of the mainframe computers and vacuum tubes. With the introduction of large-scale Integration circuits (LSI) and silicon chips consisting of thousands of transistors, computers reached a new level.
Microcomputers, which were physically much like the minicomputers of the third generation, however they were much cheaper enabling individuals to now use them, not just large company’s and universities. These personal computers and required an operating system that was user friendly so that people with little computer knowledge was able to use it. In 1981, IBM was releasing a 16-bit personal computer, and required a more powerful operating system then the ones available at the time, so they turned to Microsoft to deliver it. The software, called Micro Soft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) became the standard operating system for most personal computers of that era.
In the mid-1980’s, networks of personal computers had increased a great deal, requiring a new type of operating system. The OS had to be able to manage remote and local hardware and software, file sharing and protection, among other things. Two types of systems were introduced, the network operating system in which users can copy from one station to another, and the distributed operating system, in which the computer appears to be a uni-processor system, even though it is actually running programs and storing files in a remote location. One of the best known network operating system for a distributed network is the Network File System (NFS), which was originally designed by Sun Microsystems, for use on UNIX based machines. An important feature of the NFS is its ability to support different type of computers. This allowed a machine running NFS to communicate with an IBM compatible machine running MS-DOS, which was an important addition to networking computing.
1984 saw the release of the Apple Macintosh, a low-cost workstation, which evolved from early Alto computer designs. The Macintosh provided advanced graphics and high performance for its size and cost. As the Macintosh was not compatible with other systems, it required its own operating system, which is how the Apple operating system was established. MIMIX, based on the UNIX design was also a popular choice for the Macintosh.
As computer processors got faster, operating systems also had to improve in order to take advantage of this progression. Microsoft released version 2 of MS-DOS, which adopted the many features that made UNIX so popular, although MS-DOS was designed to be smaller then, but was not as large as the UNIX operating system making it ideal for personal computers.
Modern Operating Systems
The past 9 years have seen many advances in computers and their operating systems. Processors continue to increase in speed, each requiring an operating system to handle the new developments. Microsoft Corporation has dominated the IBM compatible world, Windows being the standard operating system for majority of personal computers.
Now as computing and information technology becomes more towards the Internet and virtual computing, so too must the operating systems.
In 1992, Microsoft for Workgroups 3.1 was introduced, extending on from the previous versions. It allowed the sending of electronic mail, and provided advanced networking capabilities to be used as a client on an existing local area network. This was only the one stage in the vast evolution of the worlds most popular operating system, with the most recent being Windows NT and Windows 98, the latter being a fully Internet integrated operating system. Windows, however is not the only operating system in use today? Other’s such as UNIX, Apple Operating System and OS/Warp have also had an impact, each new version more advanced, and more user friendly then the la
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Teacher:Shaimerdenova G.S South Kazakhstan State pharmaceutical academy “Medical Biophysics, Computer Science and Mathematics” department Theme : Evolution of operating system A. Frank – P. Weisberg
Evolution of an Operating Systems? Must adapt to hardware upgrades and new types of hardware. Examples: Character vs. graphic terminals Introduction of paging hardware Must offer new services, e.g., internet support. The need to change the OS on regular basis place requirements on it’s design: modular construction with clean interfaces. object oriented methodology. *
Evolution of Operating Systems Early Systems (1950) Simple Batch Systems (1960) Multiprogrammed Batch Systems (1970) Time-Sharing and Real-Time Systems (1970) Personal/Desktop Computers (1980) Multiprocessor Systems (1980) Networked/Distributed Systems (1980) Web-based Systems (1990) *
Early Systems Structure Single user system. Programmer/User as operator (Open Shop). Large machines run from console. Paper Tape or Punched cards. *
Example of an early computer system *
Simple Batch Systems Use of high-level languages, magnetic tapes. Jobs are batched together by type of languages. An operator was hired to perform the repetitive tasks of loading jobs, starting the computer, and collecting the output (Operator-driven Shop). It was not feasible for users to inspect memory or patch programs directly. *
Operation of Simple Batch Systems The user submits a job (written on cards or tape) to a computer operator. The computer operator place a batch of several jobs on an input device. A special program, the monitor, manages the execution of each program in the batch. Monitor utilities are loaded when needed. “Resident monitor” is always in main memory and available for execution. *
Idea of Simple Batch Systems Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs. Alternate execution between user program and the monitor program. Rely on available hardware to effectively alternate execution from various parts of memory. Use Automatic Job Sequencing – automatically transfer control from one job when it finishes to another one. *
Control Cards (1) Problems: 1. How does the monitor know about the nature of the job (e.g., Fortran versus Assembly) or which program to execute? 2. How does the monitor distinguish: (a) job from job? (b) data from program? Solution: Introduce Job Control Language (JCL) and control cards. *
Special cards that tell the monitor which programs to run: $JOB $FTN $RUN $DATA $END Special characters distinguish control cards from data or program cards: $ in column 1 // in column 1 and 2 709 in column1 Control Cards (2) *
Job Control Language (JCL) JCL is the language that provides instructions to the monitor: what compiler to use what data to use Example of job format: ——->> $FTN loads the compiler and transfers control to it. $LOAD loads the object code (in place of compiler). $RUN transfers control to user program. $JOB $FTN . FORTRAN program . $LOAD $RUN . Data . $END *
Another Job/Steps example *
Effects of Job Control Language (JCL) Each read instruction (in user program) causes one line of input to be read. Causes (OS) input routine to be invoked: checks for not reading a JCL line. skip to the next JCL line at completion of user program. *
Resident Monitor Resident Monitor is first rudimentary OS. Resident Monitor (Job Sequencer): initial control is in monitor. loads next program and transfers control to it. when job completes, the control transfers back to monitor. Automatically transfers control from one job to another, no idle time between programs. *
Resident Monitor Layout *
Parts of resident monitor: Control Language Interpreter – responsible for reading and carrying out instructions on the cards. Loader – loads systems programs and applications programs into memory. Device drivers – know special characteristics and properties for each of the system’s I/O devices. Resident Monitor Parts *
Desirable Hardware Features Memory protection do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered by a user program. Privileged instructions can be executed only by the resident monitor. A trap occurs if a program tries these instructions. Interrupts provide flexibility for relinquishing control to and regaining control from user programs. Timer interrupts prevent a job from monopolizing the system. *
Offline Operation Problem: Card Reader slow, Printer slow (compared to Tape). I/O and CPU could not overlap. Solution: Offline Operation (Satellite Computers) – speed up computation by loading jobs into memory from tapes while card reading and line printing is done off-line using smaller machines. *
Spooling (1) Problem: Card reader, Line printer and Tape drives slow (compared to Disk). I/O and CPU could not overlap. Solution: Spooling – Overlap I/O of one job with the computation of another job (using double buffering, DMA, etc). Technique is called SPOOLing: Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line. *
Spooling (2) While executing one job, the OS: Reads next job from card reader into a storage area on the disk (Job pool). Outputs printout of previous job from disk to printer. Job pool – data structure that allows the OS to select which job to run next in order to increase CPU utilization. *
We assumed Uniprogramming until now I/O operations are exceedingly slow (compared to instruction execution). A program containing even a very small number of I/O operations, will spend most of its time waiting for them. Hence: poor CPU usage when only one program is present in memory. *
Why Multiprogramming? Multiprogramming (also known as Multitasking) needed for efficiency: Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times. Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to execute. A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory. One job selected and run via job scheduling. When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job. *
Requirements for Multiprogramming Hardware support: I/O interrupts and DMA controllers in order to execute instructions while I/O device is busy. Timer interrupts for CPU to gain control. Memory management several ready-to-run jobs must be kept in memory. Memory protection (data and programs). Software support from the OS: For scheduling (which program is to be run next). To manage resource contention. *
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Plan: 1. Software. Types of the software, purpose and characteristic. Basic concepts of OS. 2. Evolution of operating systems. Classification of operating systems, including for mobile devices. Classification of desktop applications.
1. Computer Software What we’ll cover for this lecture topic: Software categories Applications software Systems software What is an operating system? What does it do for me? What does it do for application programs? What is a translator?
Application software Application software It is the reason that one wants to buy a computer: • printout out paychecks • play Mortal Kombat • keep track of a stamp collection • do your taxes • generate a fancy newsletter • guide robots • keep a budget • draw a flowchart • browse the Web • design a car
Includes many executable files and data files: Includes many executable files and data files: Installer program (eg: setup.exe) Uninstaller program (why important?) Main executable file (eg: winword.exe) Support modules (eg: .dll files) Called by the PROGRAM, not by the user Data modules (eg: MS Word dictionary)
I. The Operating System A type of system software that underlies all other software. It manages all software and hardware tasks. It provides a common set of computer functions such as input from a keyboard and output to a monitor. It provides the user interface……that is: How can something as simple-minded as a processor and memory present you with something as rich as the Mac or Windows GUI?
EXAMPLES of I/O operations EXAMPLES of I/O operations OS reads mouse movement and writes to display screen. You move the mouse—what do you expect to happen? What that involves… Manage interrupt. OS reads mouse wheels. OS draws cursor arrow (changes pixel colors so arrow appears to be “moving”).
OS identifies selected objects on the desktop OS identifies selected objects on the desktop You select an icon–what do you expect to see? What that involves…! FIRST: you move the cursor to point to icon… Draws “moving cursor…” OS keeps table of icon placements… Looks at current cursor placement and compares it to that table. NEXT: you single-click mouse button to SELECT it: What do you expect to see? OS does all this!
OS does system control options from Start button: OS does system control options from Start button: Shut down; Restart.
OS does universal ops from the View menu: OS does universal ops from the View menu: Show/Hide Toolbars & Status bar; Large icons, Small icons; List; Details; Arrange Icons etc.
>1 program or person can share computer resources. >1 program or person can share computer resources. CPU is idle ~90% of time, waiting for user input ! Multiprogramming Run two or more programs concurrently. eg: Calculate payroll and Accts payable and WP and … 1. Multi-user OS (eg: Unix).
2. Single-user OS (eg, Windows) 2. Single-user OS (eg, Windows) Referred to as multitasking, which is multiprogramming for single-user OS. One active app; others run in the background
II. Translators (revisited!) How do people write programs? Only language a computer understands? A translator (or compiler): Program that converts high-level source code into low-level machine language (object code)– can then be processed directly by the computer’s binary circuits. Running a source program is a two-step process: Execute the translator program first: converts ASCII source into executable machine language creates a new file containing the object code. Execute that NEW object code file.
What is an Operating System (2)? An Operating System is a program that acts as an intermediary/interface between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. OS goals: Control/execute user/application programs. Make the computer system convenient to use. Ease the solving of user problems. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.
Services provided by an OS Facilities for program creation editors, compilers, linkers, debuggers, etc. Program execution loading in memory, I/O and file initialization. Access to I/O and files deals with the specifics of I/O and file formats. System access resolves conflicts for resource contention. protection in access to resources and data.
Why are Operating Systems Important? Important to understand and know how to correctly use when writing user applications. Large and complex systems that have a high economic impact and result in interesting problems of management. Few actually involved in OS design and implementation but nevertheless many general techniques to be learned and applied. Combines concepts from many other areas of Computer Science: Architecture, Languages, Data Structures, Algorithms, etc.
Evolution of Operating Systems The evolution of operating systems is directly dependent to the development of computer systems and how users use them. Here is a quick tour of computing systems through the past fifty years in the timeline.
Early Evolution 1945: ENIAC, Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. 1949: EDSAC and EDVAC 1949 BINAC – a successor to the ENIAC 1951: UNIVAC by Remington 1952: IBM 701 1956: The interrupt 1954-1957: FORTRAN was developed
Operating Systems by the late 1950s By the late 1950s Operating systems were well improved and started supporting following usages : It was able to Single stream batch processing It could use Common, standardized, input/output routines for device access Program transition capabilities to reduce the overhead of starting a new job was added Error recovery to clean up after a job terminated abnormally was added. Job control languages that allowed users to specify the job definition and resource requirements were made possible.
Operating Systems In 1960s 1961: The dawn of minicomputers 1962 Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) from MIT 1963 Burroughs Master Control Program (MCP) for the B5000 system 1964: IBM System/360 1960s: Disks become mainstream 1966: Minicomputers get cheaper, more powerful, and really useful 1967-1968: The mouse 1964 and onward: Multics 1969: The UNIX Time-Sharing System from Bell Telephone Laboratories
Supported OS Features by 1970s Multi User and Multi tasking was introduced. Dynamic address translation hardware and Virtual machines came into picture. Modular architectures came into existence. Personal, interactive systems came into existence.
Control questions What is Software? Differentiate System software and Application software. What are the responsibilities of Operating Systems? Define the following with suitable examples. Single–user OS Multi-user OS What are utility programs? Define some tasks performed by them. What is meant by library programs? What are program language translators? Briefly describe three translating approaches. State the advantages and disadvantages of Bespoke Application Software.
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Презентация на тему: ” Classification of desktop applications 1. An application program is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or.” — Транскрипт:
Classification of desktop applications 1
An application program is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities user.Examples of an application include a word processor. Applications may be bundled with the computer and its system software or published separately, and my coded as proprietary, open or university. 2
Classification of desktop applications Documentation Document automation Word processor Desktop publishing software Diagramming software Presentation software Blog software 11/27/20193
The desktop app framework is accessible and advanced at the same time. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a desktop computer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device. 11/27/20194
Classification of desktop applications AGENDA ABOUT PROGRAMS TRAINING 11/27/20195
THANK YOU LAT ATTENTION 11/27/201910
© 2023 Prezi Inc.
Слайд 1Computer Software.
Operating systems. Desktop
Lecturer: Shakerkhan Kapan Oralgazyolu
Evolution of operating systems.
Classification of operating systems.
systems DOS, Windows, Unix, Linux, Mac OS.
systems for mobile devices.
Classification of desktop applications.
Answer my questions
What is the definition of
What is the definition of information
What does mean software ?
What does mean hardware ?
What does mean database ?
Describe the system unit ?
Tell me about types of computers ?
What is the ENIAC ?
Who is the first inventor of computer engine ?
What is the smallest unit of information’s volume measurement ?
What is the code ?
What is the encoding ?
Tell me about various forms of information ?
________ – база данных
Software – ____________
Storage of data – ____________
Calculate – __________
Sort – _____________
____________ – интерфейс пользователя
Machine readable – ____________
Data entry – ____________
_____________ – бинарная система
Decimal numbering system – ___________
___________ – обнаруживать
____________ – измерение
Denote – _____________
___________ – рассматривать
Disseminate – ___________
___________ – жест
Слайд 6Evolution of Operating Systems
Early Systems (1950)
Multiprogrammed Batch Systems (1970)
Time-Sharing and Real-Time
Personal/Desktop Computers (1980)
Multiprocessor Systems (1980)
Networked/Distributed Systems (1980)
Web-based Systems (1990)
Слайд 7Example of an early computer system
Classification of operating systems.
Operating systems can be
grouped into the following categories:
Supercomputing is primarily scientific
computing, usually modeling real systems in nature. Render farms are collections of computers that work together to render animations and special effects. Work that previously required supercomputers could be done with the equivalent of a render farm. Such computers are found in public research laboratories, Universities, Weather Forecasting laboratories, Defense and Energy Agencies, etc.
Mainframes used to be the primary form of computer. Mainframes are large centralized computers. At one time, they provided the bulk of business computing through time-sharing. Mainframes and mainframe replacements (powerful computers or clusters of computers) are still useful for some large-scale tasks, such as centralized billing systems, inventory systems, database operations, etc. When mainframes were in widespread use, there was also a class of computers known as minicomputers that were smaller, less expensive versions of mainframes for businesses that could not afford mainframes.
Servers are computers or groups of computers used for Internet serving, intranet serving, print serving, file serving and/or application serving. Clustered Servers are sometimes used to replace mainframes.
Desktop operating systems are used on standalone personal computers.
Workstations are more powerful versions of personal computers. Often only one person uses a particular workstation that run a more powerful version of a desktop operating system. They usually have software associated with larger computer systems thru a LAN network.
Classification of operating systems.
Handheld operating systems are much
smaller and less capable than desktop operating
systems, so that they can fit into the limited memory of handheld devices. Barcode scanners, PDA’s, are examples of such systems. Currently, the PDA world is witnessing an operating system battle between several players (Microsoft Windows, iPAQ, etc.)
Real time operating systems (RTOS) are designed to respond to events that happen in real time. Computers using such operating systems may run ongoing processes in a factory, emergency room systems, air traffic control systems or power stations. The operating systems are classified according to the response time they need to deal with: seconds, milliseconds, micro-seconds. They are also classified according to whether or not they involve systems where failure can result in loss of life. As in the case of supercomputers, there are no such systems in Lebanon today. However, given the way the technology is growing, it may be possible to use them in the future.
Embedded systems are combinations of processors and special software that are inside another device, such as contents switches or Network Attached Storage devices.
Smart Card Operating Systems are the smallest Operating Systems of all. Some handle only a single function, such as electronic payments, others handle multiple functions. Often these OS are proprietary systems but we are seeing more and more smart cards that are Java oriented.
Specialized Operating systems, like Database Computers are dedicated high performance data warehousing servers.
The above Operating Systems are commonly found in government agencies and private industries.
Operating systems DOS, Windows, Unix, Linux, Mac
Later, instructions were given to the computer
with punch cards or magnetic tape.
If you wanted to run a different program, you had to wipe out the first program from memory and then load another program into memory.
Слайд 13What is OS?
It is the software that
enables all the programs we use.
organizes and controls the hardware (CPU, RAM, I/O)
OS acts as an interface between the application programs and the machine hardware.
Слайд 14Operating System Software
Examples: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix,
Mac OS X, iOS, Android.
Слайд 15What is an operating system (OS)?
Слайд 16OS Functions
The main functions of operating systems
Manages and Interacts with Computer Hardware
Provides the User/ Computer Interface (CLI / GUI)
Provides the Interface for Application Software
Input / Output Operations
Error Detection, Resource Allocation, Security and Protection
Слайд 17OS Services
Operating system services such as,
Input / Output Operations ,Controlling and Allocating
Work as a Resource Allocator ,Prioritizing system requests, File System Manipulation, Error Detection,
Controlling input and output devices, Communication
Managing file systems, protection
CPUs have this capability to use at least two modes: protected mode and supervisor mode.
Слайд 18Manages the CPU
– by CPU scheduling
is processing in RAM – Virtual memory.
Provides the Interface for Application Software
-Operating systems are designed and developed for a specific CPU or “family of CPUs”
Слайд 19To run more than one program at
a time, you need a “boss” program
that controls all the other programs.
Such a boss program is called an operating system.
Слайд 20Microsoft’s MS-DOS was one of the first
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (PCs).
Instead, you had to type a lot of special computer commands.
Слайд 21In the 1980s, operating systems were developed
where you could move a mouse around
and click on things instead of typing commands.
Слайд 22Digital Equipment Corporation created several operating systems
for its 16-bit PDP-11 machines, the time-sharing
operating systems, and the RSX-11 family of real-time operating systems.
Слайд 23Beginning in the mid-1970s, a new class
of small computers came onto the marketplace.
Featuring 8-bit processors along with rudimentary input and output interfaces and as much RAM as practical, these systems started out as kit-based hobbyist computers but soon evolved into an essential business tool.
Слайд 24Windows 1.0 was released on November 20,
1985 as the first version of the Microsoft
Windows line. It runs as a graphical, 16-bit mult-tasking shell on top of an existing MS-DOS installation
Слайд 25Windows 2000 is an operating system for
use on both client and server computers.
It was produced by Microsoft and released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999
Слайд 26Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal
computer operating system produced by Microsoft
operating system was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001
Слайд 27Windows Vista (codenamed is an operating system
by Microsoft for use on personal computers,
including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
Development was completed on 8,November 2006
Слайд 28Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is
a personal computer operating system developed by
Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on 22 July 2009
Слайд 29Windows 8 is a personal computer operating
system developed by Microsoft as part of
the Windows NT family of operating systems.
The operating system was released to manufacturing on 1 August 2012
Слайд 30Windows Phone 8 is the second generation
of the Windows Phone mobile operating system
from Microsoft. It was released on October 29, 2012, and like its predecessor, it features a flat user interface based on Metro design language
Слайд 31Windows 10 is a personal computer operating
system developed by Microsoft as part of
the Windows NT family of operating systems. Officially unveiled in September 2014
Слайд 32Android is a mobile operating system (OS)
based on the Linux kernel and currently
developed by Google. With a user interface based on direct manipulation, Android is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile
Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007.
Слайд 34iOS is another type of operating system
like ANDROID enables users to use smartphones
main credit of development of iOS’ development goes to STEVE JOBS.
Have you any questions ???
Слайд 36Thank you for your attention !!!
What are Computer Apps (Applications)?
Computer applications or apps are a computer software package. These apps perform specific tasks for the end user directly, and/or, in some cases, for other apps.
A computer app may be a self-contained program in itself or even be a set of programs, which is, in turn, a set of operations that make the app functional and helpful for the end user.
- The computer apps help in communicating and requesting services usually through the API as well as in accessing basic hardware resources.
- The most common apps that you will find installed in most of the computer systems are Windows apps, web apps, and web services apps.
- You will also get different types of embedded apps, task oriented apps, console apps and business apps.
- Apart from these major apps you can also install different educational apps, entertainment and multimedia apps, personalization and social apps, productivity and utility apps in your computer system.
Understanding Computer Apps and Their Types
Before going into the types of computer applications that you may download and use, it is better to know about the apps in particular.
This knowledge will help you in determining which specific app you should download on your computer.
A computer application specifically uses the operating system of the computer as well as other programs to support running it on your computer.
This means that you will first have to find the compatibility of the app with your computer and its programs before downloading any.
Also, remember that a computer application is not the same as the system software.
In fact, an application communicates and requests services from different technologies in a computer through the Application Programming Interface or API to function and to access fundamental hardware resources.
System software programs run in the background, unlike the applications, and do not interact with the user directly.
They simply manage the operation of the computer. These are low-level and basic programs as compared to the applications.
Applications can be of different types and these vary according to their built platforms they run on, whether these are proprietary or open source, and the market it is used for.
Here they are for you but remember this is not an exhaustive list or compiled in any specific order. There are also several other apps that you can download on your computer according to your needs and fancy.
These apps are also known as Desktop Applications and are based on Windows. The most common examples are Microsoft Word, Paint and others.
Often referred to as ‘web’ in short, web applications are a collection of web pages that are typically hosted on a special computer which is known as the ‘web server’ that can be located anywhere.
Users from anywhere in the world can visit this web server which works through browsers. Some common examples are Internet Explorer, Netscape, Mozilla, and others.
Web services are specific types of web applications that offer services to other apps via the internet.
For example, the Google search engine, Yahoo Search engine and others allow other apps to hand over the job of searching on the internet.
A small computer program saves names, addresses, and other information in a digital diary or mobile phone. This computer program is embedded in the chip of the device and is called the Embedded Systems.
These particular types of apps run inside the DOS window or the Command Prompt. This lightweight program is commonly used for test applications.
Task Oriented Apps:
Here are some good examples of some of the major and most commonly used computer apps based on different tasks.
- Presentation – Apps such as Microsoft PowerPoint and Keynotes allow using different tools to create a more appealing visual presentation of data and information more easily in the form of slides.
- Spreadsheet – Specific apps such as Apple Numbers, Microsoft Excel allow representing data in tabular form spreadsheets which makes making calculations easy with the use of different formulas, tools, and functions.
- Graphics – If you are into graphics design you can use specific apps such as Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Paint, CorelDRAW, and Adobe Illustrator to edit visual data easily along with picture editing and illustration.
- Word processors – MS Word, WordPad and Notepad and other word processors will facilitate manipulation, formulation, and beautification of text. The wide variety of features will make text editing and consolidation much easier.
- Database – There are specific database software such as Oracle, MS Access and others that will help in database management. You will be able to organize data most effectively and access them effortlessly.
- Multimedia – Apps like Real Player, Media Player and others will allow creating video, audio, or pictorial files and sharing them easily by using the wide variety of useful tools that these apps come with.
- Education – There are a lot of academic or educational apps out there to use such as Encarta, Britannica, MATLAB, Google Earth and others that will take care of your learning by offering immersive education through gripping tutorials.
- Application suites – These come with a lot of programs, features, user interfaces, and functions that help in interacting. A few examples are Microsoft Office, Security suite, Adobe Creativity suite, gaming apps and more.
- Enterprise – These apps meet all organization needs and help in managing data flow in any environment. It helps in automated billing, business intelligence, e-mail marketing, and content management.
- Enterprise infrastructure – These apps help in supporting enterprise software systems and are used extensively by businesses, surveillance systems, societies, organizations, security companies, transportation, communication, sewage, electricity and water management companies.
- Content access – These apps help in publishing digital contents by accessing them easily in a website.
- Information – These apps address all the needs of creating and managing information for individual projects.
There are some of the best computer apps to download and use especially by the business owners and needs specific mention.
These apps will ensure better business operation, management, and productivity. Here they are.
Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP application will help in managing day-to-day business activities including project management, accounting, procurement, manufacturing, risk management, supply chain operation, compliance and more.
Some good examples are Microsoft Dynamics, Odoo, Oracle e-Business suite and more.
Customer Relationship Management or CRM application will help businesses to administer interactions and relations with customers with proper data analysis to establish better relationships and offer higher experience.
A few good examples are Zoho CRM, NetSuite CRM, Salesforce Sales Cloud, and more.
Project Management or PM application will help businesses to plan, execute, organize and manage resource tools as well as create resource estimates.
These apps are very versatile and help in managing expenses, handling costing, quality management, documentation, administration, collaboration, and communication. Some good examples are Jira, Zoho Projects, Trello, Basecamp, and more.
Business Process Management or BPM applications help in optimizing business processes in a methodical style.
It will model, define, automate, and describe the workflow process so that the business achieves its goals by offering more visibility into operations and curtailing errors, miscommunications, and inadequacies.
Some good examples of it are Zoho Creator, Nintex, Kissflow, and ProcessMaker.
These apps will help businesses to achieve their tasks in a more productive way and in time. It helps in creating documents, databases, graphs, worksheets, and presentations.
All apps that help in time tracking and management, project management, content management, database management, and more are called productivity apps.
These applications help in resource planning to make it easier to allocate projects to people according to the requirements smartly and in real time.
Some good examples that help in managing business calendars and human capital are Forecast, Mavenlink, monday.com, and others.
Time management apps help the human resources to manage their time most effectively to stay productive.
It helps in keeping a track of the usage of digital systems and also gives an insight to keep the team more organized, focused, and competent. A few good examples of it are Asana, Avaza, EmpMonitor, ClickTime, DeskTime, and more.
Here are some of the major apps that every computer has or should have for easy and convenient use and completion of computing tasks.
Microsoft Word – This app is available in different formats and can run on various platforms. You can download it directly from the web and install it on your desktop or laptop computer or even on any mobile device such as smartphones and or a tablet.
Adobe Photoshop – This is another app that you can use on your desktop computer, laptop computer or on mobile devices. A must-have for all computer users, this particular app is a complete package that will help you a lot with your graphics jobs.
You may install its mobile version Adobe Photoshop Sketch on your mobile device or its web-based and more condensed version Adobe Photoshop Express Editor as well.
Facebook Pages Manager – This app is specially designed for Android and iOS. It is very helpful for business owners apart from the individuals having business Facebook pages.
It helps in managing these pages efficiently along with their Facebook activities through a smartphone or a tablet.
Some Common and Uncommon App Examples
If you do not know what to look for or download, here are a few good examples of common and uncommon apps to have in your computer.
Google Chrome – One of the Most Commonly Used Internet Browser
This is one of the most commonly used and popular internet browsers that is very fast, convenient to use, and comes with a huge library of extensions.
Google Drive – For Cloud Storage
If you are looking for a reliable cloud app service then Google Drive is the one you should install on your computer.
You will get ample free space of around 15 GB which you can share across your Google account with Gmail and Google Photos.
It is easy to use, share, carry and sync files, create back up folders and even pair it with OneDrive or any free cloud storage provider to get additional storage space and to logically separate your files by service.
Spotify – Stream any Music
If you love to listen to music then, apart from YouTube, this app will keep you entertained, always.
There is no need for importing and organizing your collection of music painstakingly when you use this app.
The unique aspect of Spotify is that it also has a dedicated Windows app that its competitors do not.
LibreOffice – A Productivity Suite
If you need a productivity suite to work with documents, presentations, and spreadsheets, Microsoft Office is not the only way. LibreOffice is here that every Windows user should go with.
This powerful suite comes with alternatives to Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, and more, albeit with some minor aesthetic variations from MS Office that you should get used to.
Paint.NET – A Good Paint Editor
If you are not comfortable with Photoshop, this app will satisfy all your image editing needs.
It is much more powerful than Microsoft Paint but does not come with a lot of tools to confuse or overwhelm you but you can still make your photos look better with text and shapes added to it.
However, this is a basic app. If you want a more advanced solution, you can try GIMP.
Malwarebytes – For Anti-Malware and Security
It is prudent to install a secondary security app like this apart from Windows Defender that is included in Windows 10 and 11. Malwarebytes will scan your computer for malware which a regular antivirus may not catch.
VLC – A Lot of Features
YouTube is ubiquitous. Period. But, it will not harm to keep an additional and solid video player installed in your computer like VLC to play media files locally.
It comes with a lot of features that you will find handy someday. It can play videos in any format imaginable without having to mess around with the video Codecs.
ShareX – A Reliable Screenshot Tool
The basic screenshot tools will offer barebones features and therefore you will need a more reliable and better screenshot tool in your computer.
ShareX is powerful and comes with loads of features, capture methods, a built-in editor, a ruler, color grabber, and more, so much that it may sometimes overwhelm you.
In that case you can also try PicPick which is simpler but is not short of features.
7-Zip – File Compression and Extraction
You will not be able to zip files on Windows that are beyond basic or simple if you do not have this app on your computer.
It is a powerful tool for file compression and extraction which may not be very exciting but will work with any type of archived files.
However, it comes with an aged and Spartan look. If you do not want that, try PeaZip.
Rambox – Popular Messaging App
Though there is no way to pick the best messaging app, Rambox is quite a popular messaging app to have on your computer.
With it, you can add different popular messaging services such as WhatsApp, Skype, Facebook Messenger, Telegram, Discord, and many more including web apps such as Apple Music to it.
ClipClip – Manage Clipboard
ClipClip is a good Windows clipboard manager to install on your computer and use.
This app allows logging what you copy, pin frequently used snippets, create folders easily and quickly, pasting email responses, addresses and other canned texts.
Bitwarden – Create and Manage Passwords Easily
Creating strong passwords for any account and managing them will not be difficult anymore if you have this app on your computer.
It is secure and locks all passwords behind one master password. Therefore, you will not have to remember all of them.
Backblaze – Create Backups Easily
Backblaze will back up everything that you have on your computer including the external drives when you connect it. All these will be in the Backblaze cloud.
There are no restrictions on backup size. This, however, is a paid app but is worth paying for since the app will pay for itself in an instant if you lose all files. However, if you cannot afford it, you may try the free EaseUS Todo.
TreeSize Free – Manage Storage Efficiently
If you do not want to run low on storage space you will need to manage it efficiently but it is a hassle. TreeSize offers a free and simple way to do it.
It will scan all files and folders to let you see the largest ones and take actions accordingly. No manual hunting required.
AutoHotkey – A Custom Scripting Tool
This app will bring in more automation to your computer. This custom scripting tool will allow defining your own commands, creating text expansion quickly, making automatic typo correction, overriding specific keyboard keys, and creating macros to carry out a number of actions with just a few key presses.
However, it can be slightly intimidating initially but once you get used to it, it will prove to be a powerful tool to have in your computer.
Duolingo – Learn Digital Language
Designed by a language-learning platform this app helps in honing your digital language proficiency.
Here are some other apps based on specific purposes than those that are mentioned above that are also quite good to install on your computer.
- Tidal – An expensive yet great app for streaming music with a large library of high quality music
- Amazon Music – For Amazon Prime subscribers to listen to more than 2 million songs from a curated list with no ads
- Netflix – For downloading videos and offline viewing
- Hulu – To watch latest episodes of favorite TV shows
- Kodi – To manage a huge offline media library with lots of plug-ins and
- Audible – An audio book service to ‘listen’ to books on the go.
- WeDo 2.0 LEGO Education – Great for kids to learn fundamental coding with LEGO bricks and for learning crucial science and engineering lesson including modeling, problem solving, investigating, prototyping, and analyzing and interpreting data
- TED – For latest TED talks on different topics along with good educational videos
- FlashQuiz – To use flashcards while studying and memorizing specific things such as world flags, capitals, currencies, and even periodic table and
- Reading Trainer – To improve reading skills through fund exercises and retaining it with eye-exercises.
Multimedia Design Apps:
- Autodesk SketchBook – With touch input support and lots of tools that help creating a masterpiece
- PhotoDirector 10 Essential – An excellent app for image editing with easy to use and professional tools and
- Affinity Photo – Another great app for creative professionals with lots of useful features, color specs and lots more.
- TaskbarX – This allows moving apps from the taskbar to the center with several transition effects to make it look cool along with animations.
- Files UWP – It is a file explorer built with Fluent design guidelines that allow doing a lot of useful things such as sort files and folders according to varied metrics, fix folders in the left pane, enable dark mode et cetera.
- Seer Pro – It brings similar features of macOS to Windows allowing quick preview of files of any format by pressing the spacebar and copying text, images or video frames right from there.
- TouchMe Gesture Studio – It will allow you to create customized gestures for your touch screen computer with 2/3/4/5 finger gesture support to do anything from launching apps to shutting down your computer.
- Wallpaper Studio 10 – This app allows access to a large variety of high-quality wallpapers and can be set up on your desktop and lock screen easily without messing with Windows settings and also to create Windows themes and upload them.
- TranslucentTB – This app makes the taskbar translucent and customizes its look by adjusting the opacity, accent color and more to create a more dynamic taskbar.
- Accent Applicator – Use this app for customizing the color of UI elements and the selected text with dimmer or brighter accents for a more unique computing experience.
- Dropbox – This is a cloud-storage service with a lot of different apps which double up as a workspace by staying connected to the team and accessing files safely in one place.
- OneNote – Clubbed with Microsoft Office app, it is a powerful note-taking app that even supports multi-user collaboration as well.
- iA Writer This is one of the best writing apps with a clean and fluid interface with no distractions while writing. It uses syntax to format text and to create sheets and search between them using keywords.
- Bamboo Paper – You can take notes or create a sketch with utmost accuracy using a wide variety of tools such as pens and brushes.
- Microsoft To-Do – This is a smart and simple app that allows creating to-do lists, setting tasks and reminders, and planning the day with the smart suggestions feature.
- Code Writer – Good for budding developers, this text and code editor supports more than twenty file types and comes with features like active syntax highlighting which will update as you edit the documents when you use it as a Notepad++ replacement.
- Ditto Clipboard – A good clipboard manager that saves all items whether it is text or images which you cannot do with the native Windows clipboard.
- PDF Reader – This app allows reading, editing, annotating, and sharing PDF documents.
- WhatsApp Desktop – Sync all chats to chat directly from desktop with your family and friends
- Instagram – A decent image sharing platform
- Zoom – For easy video conferencing using several useful tools and features with up to 100 participants
- Skype – For making voice calls, video calls, and text chat or drag and drop files easily on it and
- Readit – Perhaps the best Reddit client for Windows 10.
- Your Phone – Also known as Phone Link, this app allows connecting Android devices to the computer seamlessly and browse the photo gallery, receive message and call notifications, and reply to messages, receive and answer calls, all from your computer.
- IrfanView – This app allows viewing photos with lower load times and also supports a large number of media formats, can convert media files, comes with a decent image editor, batch edit and zoom images, and switch between them using the scroll bar.
- PowerToys – This app comes with multiple utilities and a lot of features built into it such as PowerToys Run. By simply pressing the Alt and Space you will find any file, folder, app, and document. It also comes with a useful image resize and rename tool along with Windows keyboard guide, fancy zones, and other features.
- 1Password – This is a reliable password manager app for Windows 10 with perhaps the best user interface and a minimalist design. You can store a lot of information in its vault as well apart from the passwords.
- Converter Bot – This app acts like a universal file converter for Windows 10 computers allowing instant, easy and simple file conversion across a wide variety of file formats. The user interface is easy to use with minimalist design and you can simply drag and drop the files that you want to convert and select the format of the output file and eventually have a more fluid and intuitive user experience.
- AquaSnap – This app offers more flexibility in window management with loads of features including AquaGlue, AquaMagnet, and AquaStretch that allows you to do a lot of things with the window such as stretch it one side with a double-click.
- FocusCommit – Be Focused – This app eliminates distractions and enhances focus on your work with its Pomodoro technique. You will be able to do things in a short time and even take breaks in between.
- ProtonVPN – This is one of the best VPNs or Virtual Private Networks for Windows 10 that offers a lot of security and privacy, unlimited data with 256-bit encryption, no-logging policy, and a high level of performance.
- ShutUp10 – This app protects your privacy with an easy to use dashboard that can be handled by anyone and everyone. There are dedicated columns in it for different settings related to privacy and it even offers recommendations for each privacy setting.
- Autoruns – This app allows you to see all software programs that may be running continuously in the background even after being deleted as well as the browser extensions so that you can identify and remove those that you do not need from your computer. However, be careful not to end up messing up Windows 10.
- IObit Driver Booster – This app helps in finding the most suitable drive for a specific type of hardware device that you may be using externally such as a Wi-Fi USB adapter.
There are thousands of apps available out there and each of them serves different purpose.
All these apps are good but you may not need all of them and a few may have some specific system requirements.
Therefore, make sure that you research about the apps you want to download, know its properties, and, most importantly, go through the reviews available in a neutral third-party review site.
This will ensure that you do not end up downloading an app that will not run smoothly on your computer or affect other operations when performed on it.
So, those are the most common and useful applications that you should have in your computer for convenient use.
Remember, you may not need to download them all. Consider your needs and computer space, and download the ones that you will use often.