By Congli Huang
Entering international markets has long been considered a strategic move for many thriving businesses and organizations.
In today’s highly digital world, going global is slowly becoming less of an optional strategy and more of an expected or highly awaited maneuver. In the coming years, we can expect international expansion to be the norm.
Thanks to advances in technology and the rise of e-commerce, it has become more feasible to expand operations in new markets. Even smaller or niche businesses can reach new customers in foreign countries and achieve new successes.
However, many companies still have second thoughts about going global. After all, the path to international expansion requires facing new challenges to start over in a new country and new market.
For businesses and organizations serious about their continued growth, though, entering foreign markets should be a natural next step.
Why and How to Expand Business Internationally
Growth-minded businesses aim to someday expand internationally. They do not see international expansion as an end goal, but rather as the start of a challenging new venture.
Entering overseas markets presents new customers, new revenue streams, and new competitors. However, in order to fully take advantage of these new opportunities, it is crucial to figure out the “why” before answering the “how.”
Having a clear objective makes it easier to figure out how to expand your company internationally and gauge how well it is proceeding.
A company’s reason for expansion drives its business goals and aids in structuring its foreign expansion strategy. Clear purposes for international expansion also help businesses set key performance indicators and metrics of success.
Related Read: Factors to Consider When Entering a New Market
What Are the Benefits of Expanding Into Global Markets?
Expanding a business internationally offers many benefits when done properly. Businesses that are preparing for a potential international expansion should take the time to explore which benefits they are aiming to achieve.
For businesses and organizations still undecided about entering foreign markets, here are five compelling reasons why companies go global.
1. Lower Your Competition in Growing Markets
Gaining a competitive advantage over current business competitors is one of the biggest reasons to expand internationally.
Businesses and organizations that initiate global expansion often do so to gain a first-mover advantage. The move allows them to leave a saturated domestic market and find new customers in developing markets.
Moreover, entering new markets gives businesses greater visibility. This allows their company to build strong brand awareness and a connection with local consumers. Even when their domestic competitors do enter the market, they have the advantage of having a more recognizable brand name.
Lowering your competition does not only apply to customers or consumers but also to suppliers. An international expansion can also help your company find better suppliers and access new technologies that may boost business operations. This can be one of the most popular reasons why companies go global.
2. Offset Fluctuations in Your Local Market
Global expansions and a diversified market presence offer your company a way to mitigate long-term risks from the effects of a fluctuating local and global market.
Triumphantly entering new markets overseas allows companies to decrease their dependency on their local market. Instead of feeling the brunt of one market’s highs and lows, companies can use the profitable operations of one market to offset the negative performance of another.
Another reason why companies go global is so that they can take advantage of foreign markets to introduce unique products and services based on local palates. A poorly performing product in domestic markets may also be offset by introducing it in another country where customer preferences indicate a better reception.
3. Improve Your Margins
Going global gives businesses access to new talent pools and new technology. These may help bring down production or operational costs, allowing companies to improve their profit margins.
Moving divisions to foreign countries is not a new concept. China, India, and other Asian countries have gained a reputation for being economical production places.
More affordable talent, material, and labor costs allow businesses to keep manufacturing costs down while still ensuring quality products and business performance.
Entering a new market also allows you to prolong the sales life of an existing product or service. In particular, products that are on a decline locally due to market saturation may be positively received abroad.
Instead of spending time and money on new product development, companies can create a new revenue source by finding new consumers for a previously successful product.
4. Jump on a Unique Opportunity
Sudden changes within the management, the industry, or the local market are ideal openings for expanding internationally. Mergers, acquisitions, and new office locations, in particular, are opportunities you can capitalize on to move forward internationally.
Infographic courtesy of Statista.
Unexpected events also create unique opportunities for global expansion. A prime example is how businesses and consumers across the world increasingly went digital when the pandemic hit.
Experts at UNCTAD noted a three-percentage point increase in e-commerce retail sales to 19% in 2020. There has been a surge in e-commerce transactions and contactless payments as consumers move to shopping online instead of in person.
Consumers no longer limit themselves to what is locally available. Rather, they are exploring overseas retailers and rewarding businesses that responded to the increased demand for global payments support.
5. Respond to Demand
One of the most common and most telling reasons why companies go global is the existence of measurable demand.
Companies that do not expand their operations to international markets after seeing significant demand for their products and services miss out on highly lucrative opportunities.
It is increasingly easier to see how foreign markets respond to products, even ones that are not yet available to them, thanks to the internet. When you see international consumers showing interest in your goods, it is highly advised to try testing the market through a small expansion.
This way, companies can tentatively enter international markets while keeping risks low, but at the same time have the leeway to scale up operations if the reception is favorable.
5 Factors to Consider When Expanding Your Business Internationally
Expanding your business internationally requires much time, effort, and commitment to ensure the process goes smoothly. Having a foreign expansion strategy is paramount when establishing your presence at an international level.
A foreign expansion strategy or business plan answers the question of how to expand business internationally.
A sound set of foreign expansion strategies gives your business the structure it needs to become sustainable in a new market. It allows you to create a business model that would work in the country you are entering.
Moreover, a foreign expansion strategy accounts for the different factors that may prove challenging for growing your business.
The factors you need to address in an overseas business plan include the following:
1. Regulation and Compliance
Businesses and organizations need to have a thorough understanding of the regulations and laws in the country they are trying to enter. Unnecessary and avoidable compliance issues can greatly slow down a company’s expansion. It may also negatively affect public perception.
Some regulatory proceedings and legal requirements you need to plan for are:
• Opening local bank accounts
• Registering tax requirements
• Getting necessary health and safety certifications
• Maintaining financial and corporate records
• Renting or buying commercial property
Smooth business operations rely on your chosen business model. You will need to adapt your current business model to incorporate your expansion strategy and work in a new foreign market.
Having a functional infrastructure is also necessary for effective and efficient business operations. Your company will also need to arrange local employee divisions to handle different departments, such as human resources, payroll, accounting, and legal counsel.
3. Foreign Market Research
Understanding why companies go global is one thing. But actually going global is another. It’s a major decision. As such, you need to make sure the foreign market you plan to enter is truly the optimal choice for your business and your products or services. Researching Google Trends, interviewing industry experts, and looking at stable economics are important when doing foreign market research.
Additionally, conducting a market analysis is essential before diving into a foreign market. You need to know who your consumers are, their preferences, potential local competitors, necessary taxes or regulations, and more.
Related Read: Everything You Need to Know About the eCommerce Market in China
4. Product Distribution
Any company’s foreign expansion strategy should outline the product or service distribution. You need to remain in control of your sales process to ensure a smooth delivery of goods to your new customers.
You need to figure out which type of distribution strategy would work best in an international market.
A well-constructed distribution strategy will allow your business to reach the maximum potential customers while maintaining distribution costs at a minimum. If your product distribution strategy is not properly thought through, it may lead to losses and market expansion failure.
Related Read: How to Collect Payments from International Suppliers
5. Payment Methods
When expanding internationally, it is imperative to allow global payments. Among two companies that expanded internationally at the same time, the one with a seamless payment system holds the competitive advantage.
Your business can attract more consumers by providing an easy and accessible way to pay. More so if your payment system allows customers to pay using their local currencies. This lessens the hassle of opening a foreign currency account and converting currencies themselves.
Moreover, providing an option for mobile payment transactions or integrating with a widespread local mobile payment system can help increase consumers’ willingness to buy your product.
Related Read: 5 Best Ways to Receive International Payments
For example, a large, global etailer had a significant number of cross-border shoppers from the Asia-Pacific region. However, compared to their domestic business, the company faced challenges with these international customers and lost revenue, realizing an online shopping cart abandonment rate of 70% for first-time Asia-Pacific buyers, low card approval rates of approximately 50%, and above average fraud rates with cross-border payments.
A major obstacle that contributed to the lost business opportunities was the limited payment options offered at checkout. For Asia-Pacific consumers, using credit cards is not their preferred payment method. In fact, less than 10% of online transactions are credit-card based in the fast-growing Asia-Pacific region. These online buyers are accustomed to using digital wallets rather than credit cards.
Since the etailer didn’t have the technology to offer mobile wallet capabilities, they needed a solution. The goal was to improve online shopping cart conversion rates by better serving their Asia-Pacific customers and supporting their buying habits. The company reached out to Citcon, the leading provider of mobile payment solutions.
By partnering with Citcon, the global etailer saw significant improvements in online conversion. The business improved the shopping and checkout process for their Asia-Pacific consumers and boosted top-line growth, reducing its online shopping cart abandonment rate by almost 50%, increasing its overall card approval rate to 85%, and experiencing zero chargeback fraud for wallet-related payments.
Related Read: 5 Advantages of Expanding a Business Internationally
Why Companies Go Global With Help from Citcon
Citcon is an all-in-one payment platform that integrates with over a hundred digital wallets worldwide. We offer in-store, online, and mobile payment solutions. Several of our clients are well-known names in the retail and hospitality industries.
Learn more about how Citcon’s global payment processing solutions can help you expand your business internationally and gain a competitive advantage.
Sign up now to request a demonstration of our all-in-one platform. We tailor our demonstrations for each potential client, ensuring you get a clear insight into why companies go global with help from Citcon and how we can enhance your business operations.
Click here to fill in a demo request form or call us at +1-888-254-4887.
Schedule your commitment-free Citcon demo today!
From CEOpedia | Management online
Global demand is the key category in macro-economics. Global demand or total demand refers to amount of money, which the subjects of economy plan to spend on goods and services at the different size of income (or in other word – at given prices) in given period. In literature a shortcut – AD (aggregate demand) is used very often.
Total demand consists of:
- personal consumption expenditures
- gross private domestic investment
- gross government spending
- net export.
There are three subjects in economy: households, business companies and the government, which expenses are marked in literature with symbols:
C – Consumption,
I – Investment,
G – government spending.
Net export is a separate category (NX – Net eXport) and represents difference between national and foreign subjects expenses – NX = X – Im.
The economy’s equilibrium level is established as a result of the game of global demand and global supply in market economy. It means that the national product and level of prices are shaped on the level on which buyer’s are willing to buy what enterprises are ready to sell. Equilibrium in real economies is seldom achieved and more often economies are not in this fixed point.
Curve of global demand
Fig. 1. Aggregated line of demand
The aggregate demand curve shows how many goods and services all subjects of economy can purchase at different total level of prices. It shows movement along the curve of global demand (ceteris paribus).
In different case, the curve AD moves to the right (the profitable changes) or to the left (the unfavorable changes) depending on the evaluation in assessing the future path of demand (optimism or pessimism), the policy of government and central bank (the taxes, interest rate), as well as economic situation abroad (the change of profitability of export and import, the fluctuations of currency rate). It is connected with the fact that the size of purchases made by individual economic subjects influences prices and the power of external elements.
Curve has minus slope (negative) what means that the size of global demand changes the level of prices inversely. The angle of slope (of curve of global demand) depends on the strength of the reaction in change of interest rate in dependence from changes of money supply, strength of reaction of change investment expenses depends on change of interest rate, degree of changes of consumptive expenses depends on change in level of wealth, as well as from degree of change of the transactional demand on money in relation to change of national income. Therefore, crucial factor is the elasticity of global demand in relation to interest rates or level of global wealth.
Equilibrium on market of goods
Essential matter joined with global demand is defined equilibrium on market of goods. In a short period at fixed prices and pays (wages and salaries), equilibrium is the moment when planned global expenses (global demand) are in fact equal production. The drawing below is illustration of this problem.
In order to qualify long-term equilibrium on market of goods we have to include in analysis changes of prices and payments. Mechanism of establishing the equilibrium in such an incident takes into account global supply what is the subject of separate article.
- Artur Okun – Equality and efficiency tradeoff
- Factors affecting and types of demand
Examples of Global demand
- Consumer demand: Consumer demand is a measure of how much consumers are willing and able to purchase based on their income, available credit, and preferences. It is a key factor in determining the overall level of economic activity. Consumer demand is affected by a variety of factors, including changes in interest rates, consumer confidence, income levels, and the availability of credit.
- Investment demand: Investment demand is the demand for capital goods and other long-term investments by businesses. It is a key factor in determining the level of economic activity and is affected by the availability of credit, the cost of capital, and the perception of risk.
- Government demand: Government demand is the demand for goods and services by the government. It can be an important source of economic growth, particularly in developing economies. Government demand is affected by changes in government spending and taxation policies.
- Export demand: Export demand is the demand for a nation’s goods and services from foreign countries. It is an important source of economic growth and is affected by changes in exchange rates, global economic conditions, and the competitive advantage of a nation’s products.
- Domestic demand: Domestic demand is the demand for goods and services within a country. It is a major source of economic growth and is affected by changes in incomes, consumer confidence, and the availability of credit.
Advantages of Global demand
Global demand has many advantages to the economy. These include:
- Increased purchasing power. As global demand increases, consumers are able to purchase more goods and services, which in turn stimulates economic growth.
- Increased investment opportunities. As global demand increases, businesses can pursue investments in new markets and industries, which can lead to greater economic prosperity.
- Increased job opportunities. As global demand increases, businesses are able to create more jobs, which gives people more income and can lead to greater economic stability.
- Increased production. As global demand increases, businesses can increase production, which leads to higher levels of economic growth and a more robust economy.
- Improved living standards. As global demand increases, people are able to purchase more goods and services, which can lead to improved living standards and a higher quality of life.
Limitations of Global demand
Although global demand is a crucial element of macro-economics, it has several limitations. These include:
- The aggregate demand only considers the amount of money spent on goods and services, but does not take into account the quality and types of goods and services being purchased, or the impact of the purchases on the environment.
- Global demand does not factor in the impact of global trade and exchange rates on the demand for goods and services.
- Global demand does not account for changes in consumer preferences or changing production costs.
- Global demand does not consider the impact of government policies, such as tariffs and subsidies, on the demand for goods and services.
- Global demand does not take into account externalities, such as the impact of pollution on the environment.
Overall, global demand is an important element of macro-economics, but it has several limitations that must be taken into account when analyzing the global economy.
Other approaches related to Global demand
Global demand is also studied through the following approaches:
- Keynesian economics: Keynesian economics is an economic theory that argues that government intervention can be used to increase global demand and economic growth. This includes government spending and taxation policies to stimulate the economy, and using fiscal policy to help balance the impact of global demand on different sectors of the economy.
- Supply-side economics: Supply-side economics is an economic theory that argues that increasing the supply of goods and services will result in increased global demand. It focuses on increasing production and reducing taxes in order to stimulate the economy.
- Monetarism: Monetarism is an economic theory that argues that the money supply is the primary factor in determining global demand. It argues that increasing the money supply will lead to increased economic growth, as more money is available for consumers to spend.
- Rational expectations: Rational expectations is an economic theory that argues that individuals and firms make decisions based on their expectations of future economic conditions. This means that global demand is affected by the expectations of consumers, businesses, and investors.
In summary, global demand is studied through various economic theories, such as Keynesian economics, supply-side economics, monetarism, and rational expectations. Each of these theories offers different insights into how global demand is affected by economic policies and external factors.
- Malmberg, A., & Power, D. (2005). On the role of global demand in local innovation processes. In Rethinking regional innovation and change (p. 273-290). Springer New York.
Author: Piotr Gawlewicz
millions of people enjoy a quality of life today that previous
generations could not have dreamed of. Home ownership, private cars
and holidays are now standard for most families in industrialised
countries. And yet at the same time, billions of people in other
countries live without even clean drinking water. How can this be?
The answer is that the fortunate few live in countries with
sustained economic growth.
is growing when the gross national product is increasing year after
year. When economists calculate economic growth, though, they must
take into account the effects of inflation. For example, imagine
that the gross national product of a country increased from $500
billion to $510 billion from one year to another. That’s an increase
of two per cent in output. Very impressive! However, if the rate of
inflation was two per cent, then there has been no real growth at
thing to remember about economic growth is that not all growth is
good. Governments want steady, sustainable growth. Sudden, sharp
increases in growth – a boom – can cause the economy to overheat and
fall into recession. For many economies, the long run growth over
many years is steady, but the short run is a roller-coaster ride of
boom and depression. For instance, the long run growth of the UK
economy since 1950 has been a steady 2.5% per year. However, if you
look closely at any decade you’ll see that there is a cycle of
growth, recession and recovery. The truth is, steady growth in the
short term is very hard to achieve.
many countries are still struggling to achieve any kind of growth at
all. Why is this? What is necessary for growth to happen? Many
economists have tried to find the answer to this question, and there
are plenty of theories to choose from. However, most economists
agree that three things are essential for economic growth to occur:
capital growth, savings and technological progress.
refers to the factories and machinery that the labour force uses to
turn raw materials into products. More workers and more raw
materials will only lead to a certain amount of growth. Eventually,
the economy needs more capital for the labour to use. Capital growth
can also include training and education for the labour force. This
makes the workforce more efficient, creative and productive.
someone has to pay for the new machines and training. In other
words, capital growth needs investment. Money for investment needs
to be borrowed from banks. Banks can only lend if customers make
savings. This is why savings are so important for growth. However,
the economy will not grow if everyone is saving and no one is
spending. Getting the right balance between consumption and saving
is another part of the challenge of economic growth.
all, technology is the real miracle worker of economic growth. An
advance in technology can increase productivity from the same amount
of capital and resources: just what the chancellor ordered!
миллионы людей пользуются качества
жизни сегодня, что предыдущие поколения
не могли и мечтать. Жилья в собственность,
частные автомобили и праздники сейчас
стандартный для большинства семей в
развитых странах. И в то же время
миллиарды людей в других странах живут
без чистой питьевой воды. Как это может
быть? Ответ заключается в том, что
немногих счастливчиков живут в странах
с устойчивым экономическим ростом.
растет, когда валовой национальный
продукт растет с каждым годом. Когда
экономисты подсчитали экономический
рост, хотя, они должны учитывать
последствия инфляции. Например,
представьте, что валовой национальный
продукт страны увеличился с $500 млрд до
$510 млрд от одного года к другому. Это
увеличение на два процента в выходной.
Очень впечатляет! Однако, если инфляция
составила два процента, то никакого
вещь, чтобы помнить об экономическом
росте в том, что не всякий рост-это
хорошо. Правительствам хотите стабильный,
устойчивый рост. Внезапное, резкое
увеличение в росте – бум – может привести
к перегреву экономики и падения в
рецессию. Для многих стран, в долгосрочной
перспективе рост на протяжении многих
лет является стабильным, но в краткосрочной
перспективе-это поездка на ”
американских горках бума и депрессии.
Например, в долгосрочной перспективе
рост экономики Великобритании с 1950
года наблюдается устойчивый 2,5% в год.
Однако, если вы внимательно посмотрите
на любой десятилетии вы увидите, что
есть цикл роста, спада и восстановления.
Правда, устойчивый рост в краткосрочной
перспективе очень трудно достичь.
не менее многие страны все еще пытаются
добиться каких-либо роста. Почему это?
Что необходимо для роста произойдет?
Многие экономисты пытались найти ответ
на этот вопрос, и есть много теорий,
чтобы выбрать из. Однако, большинство
экономистов согласны с тем, что три
вещи необходимы для экономического
роста происходит: рост капитала,
сбережений и технологического
относится к фабрикам и механизмов,
рабочей силы использует, чтобы превратить
сырье в продукцию. Больше работников
и больше сырья приведет лишь к
определенного роста. В конце концов,
экономике требуется больше капитала
для труда. Рост капитала может также
включать в себя подготовку и обучение
рабочей силы. Это делает работников
более эффективным, творческим и
кто-то должен платить за новые машины
и обучение. Другими словами, рост
капитала нуждается в инвестициях.
Деньги для инвестиций нужно в долг у
банков. Банки могут кредитовать только
если клиенты делают сбережения. Поэтому
экономия так важна для роста. Тем не
менее, экономика не будет расти, если
все сбережения, и никто не тратит.
Получение правильного баланса между
потреблением и сбережением является
другой частью проблемы экономического
прежде всего, технологии-это настоящее
чудо работник экономического роста.
Аванс в технологии могут повысить
производительность из того же объема
капитала и ресурсов: только то, что
long term, over many years, an economy will grow at a steady rate.
However, the climb up the hillside of economic growth is actually
quite rocky. Long-term growth is made up of many short-term steps.
Each short-term step may last for five or ten years. Over this
short-term period the economy goes through a cycle of growth and
recession. This is called the trade or business cycle, and it has
four stages: boom, slump, recession and recovery.
boom, everything is good. Demand for goods and services is high and
business is going well. To meet demand, companies need to take on
more staff, so unemployment is low. Confidence is in the air!
Consumers feel confident about spending because their jobs seem
secure. What’s more, interest rates are reasonable, so people take
out loans and use their credit cards. Low interest rates also
encourage companies to invest in new capital, and businesses grow.
Governments are happy too, because tax revenues are increasing.
However, the government has to be careful. Boom economies are always
in danger of overheating. Demand-pull or cost-push inflation will
eventually bring the good times to an end.
slump comes, the economy continues to grow, but not so fast. Once
inflation starts to rise, confidence falls. The government have
probably put up interest rates to slow down borrowing. People with
mortgages have to spend more money to pay off their debt, so they
have less to spend on other things. Higher interest rates discourage
business investment. Things are moving slowly, and people just hope
that the economy will improve again. But will it?
government have not acted quickly enough, its fiscal and monetary
policy changes may be too late. In this case, recession is
inevitable. Some economists say a recession exists when the current
rate of growth falls below the long-term rate of growth. Others say
a recession is when there is no growth at all, and the economy
actually shrinks. Whatever it is, a recession is bad news. Companies
have to reduce costs because turnover is so low. The first thing
they do is to lay off staff. If the recession is very bad, some
companies may even go bankrupt and close. When this happens,
thousands of workers may lose their jobs. As unemployment rises, the
government needs to spend more on providing unemployment benefit for
those who are out of work. In the worst recessions, these conditions
can last for a number of years.
with good government policy and a demand for goods or services from
healthier economies abroad recovery will come. Slowly, confidence
returns, investment grows and the cycle begins again.
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Особые предложения 2
Эссе1 Экономика, Бизнес
Companies need to know how they are performing, that’s why in each enterprise for each proper action sphere, for example, commodities or favour acquisition, delivery, overstock or deficit, there is some responsible person, who looks how every employee do his job in accordant sphere. Leader of each sector must be informed and very educated, manage to give advices and guide company for progress. So if the president of company want to know anything about companies incomes, outgoings, earnings or losses, he just has to gather concrete assistants or leaders – marketing managers, advertisement agents, book – keepers, analyst, not all workers of company, what would cause problems because of stopping any actions.
With the increased global demand in oil and gas, undiscovered areas of the world should be opened up to access more resources. To what extent do you agree?
Opinion Essay (Agree or Disagree)
Sentences 1, 2 & 3: Introduce the topic.
Sentence 4 – I disagree with the notion of the essay.
Paragraphs 1 – Effect of the process on the environment.
Paragraph 2 – Countries will be discouraged.
Sum up and state your opinion.
Consumption of oil, gas and other fossil-based fuels has always been in great demand for various purposes globally. But the overuse of these fuels has caused depletion in their known sources. As a result, many people are of the opinion that unexplored areas should be made accessible to the industries for the search of these much-needed resources. However, from my perspective, this step should be avoided for many reasons which will be discussed in this essay.
Exploration of undiscovered areas for fuels means undertaking processes like survey, clearing of forest cover, drilling and mining. The first and foremost reason to prevent exploration of undiscovered areas is that clearing the forest cover will disrupt the ecosystem of the place and destroy its flora and fauna. It will create a chain reaction by increasing pollution, degrading the quality of the natural resources and destruction of the natural habitat due to constructions by the settlers. Giving access to unexplored lands, which are also sensitive, will make the land and its biodiversity vulnerable.
Moreover, in recent years, many countries are switching to sustainable energy resources in order to reduce pollution and make up for the reducing level of non-renewable fuel reserves. For example, Finland and Germany have planned to switch to wind energy as fossil fuel resources are becoming deficient. If fuel exploration in obscure lands is allowed, then the effort to switch to more viable sources of energy will become futile. No one will strive to work harder for the environment, and their focus will be only on profit.
However, various parts of the Antarctic and Arctic regions, and the forest of Amazon already being explored for different resources and research purposes have brought forward many unknown facts about the habitat of the region and helped scientists to find new species and reserves of minerals.
Finally, I will like to opine that, instead of thinking of personal gains, we should collectively consider the betterment of the environment and future generations. We should pledge not to disturb the unexplored areas on the face of the earth and preserve them. Instead, we should concentrate on bringing up new technologies that will conserve the limited resources and will not cause harm to the environment.
Meaning: to reduce in amount by using up
Eg: The overuse of minerals will lead to their depletion.
Meaning: able to be reached or easily got
Eg: The development of roads and railways made the mountains accessible.
Meaning: stop something continuing by creating a problem
Eg: “Do not disrupt the flow of the speech by talking among yourselves.”
- Flora and fauna
Meaning: a collection of plant and animal specifies in a given geographic location
Eg: The organization has conserved a wide range of flora and fauna in that region.
Meaning: capable of being physically or emotionally wounded
Eg: After her parents passed away, she became vulnerable.
Meaning: not having enough of a specified quality or ingredient
Eg: The food is deficient in minerals.
Meaning: unknown, or are known by only a few people
Eg: Many old languages have become obscure nowadays.
Meaning: incapable of producing any result; ineffective; useless; not successful
Eg: The doctors made a futile attempt to save the old patient.
Meaning: to make a formal, usually public, promise that you will do something
Eg: The President will pledge in front of the whole country.
Meaning: in a way that is done or shared by all members of a group of people; in a way that involves a whole group or society
Eg: “Do not worry; we will find a solution collectively.”
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