Экономика сша реферат английском языке

метки: Американский, Trade, Investment, Control, Доход, International, Government, Income

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

Высшего профессионального образования

«Волгоградский государственный технический университет»

Камышинский технологический институт (филиал)

Волгоградского государственного технического университета

Кафедра «английского языка»

Реферат

По дисциплине: «Английский язык»

На тему:

The USA economy

Выполнил: Проверила:

Студент гр. КМЕН-051(в) Сорокина Т.В.

Ермаков М.М.

Камышин 2006

CONTENT

1. The basis of the US economy.

2. Major industries.

3. Agriculture.

4. Foreign trade.

5. Trade wars.

6. Global economic influence.

1. The basis of the US economy

The American economy is described as a free enterprise system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government regulation. The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith whose economic ideas of so called «laissez-faireї» or free competition influenced the development of capitalism. From his standpoint the more people manufacture and trade the greater the competition. Competition benefits society by allowing the consumer to search for the best available product at the lowest price. Thus market forces, which Smith termed the invisible hands, control the allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking for his own self-interest.

Throughout the nineteen century market operated with a minimum government regulations. Since the 1930-s American capitalism has undergone a radical change. Although private enterprises flourishes, government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor conditions. Political conservatives complain of too much government regulation while the liberals are out for the enhance of government role in business and economy.

The country’s reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced impressive growth. The USA today is a leading economic power with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture.

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Types of economic systems (Типы экономических систем)

… the 1980s and 1990s, many governments presiding over planned economies began deregulating and moving toward market based economies by allowing the private sector to make the … экономика 3.4 Традиционная экономика 3.5 Экономика активного участия 4. Изменения экономической ситуации в России 4.1 Недавние экономические события , Словарь , Список используемой литературы 1.1 The division of economic …

It is the most affluent nation in the world.60% of all families and individuals are in the middle-income or high-income rank.

2. Major industries

The USA remains the world’s leading producer of goods and services, although its margin of superiority is diminishing as other countries become more competitive in the world’s market.

Industrial and technological position of the states is very high. The USA is the leading producer of electrical energy, aluminum, copper, sylph and paper, and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. No other nation exports as much high technology as the USA.

3. Agriculture

Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized, but at the same time it requires much investment. In productive terms the achievements of this sector of the economy are extraordinary. U. S. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15% of the world’s food need.

It should be noted that in the past 30 years agricultural lands have been concentrated in fewer and fewer hands as a result of the fact that large-scale specialized farms replaces small family farms.

However high efficiency and productivity of American agriculture has its negative side. On the one hand farming has become too productive to be profitable to many American farmers. Low crop prices, which have resulted from overproduction, often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. Another difficulty an American farmer faces is the decline of agricultural exports. The situation nowadays is that the share of the U. S. crops on the world’s market is shrinking while the shares of the European community expand.

4. Foreign trade

Besides agricultural products the most part of the U. S. export occupy machinery, automotive products, aircraft and chemicals. The leading U. S. imports are petroleum products, food and beverages machinery, iron and steel products. The USA is the world’s largest importer and exporter. Despite its huge domestic production, the economy of America depends heavily on foreign imports. Until recently the US exported more goods than it imported. However the present situation is the declining competitiveness of American goods in the world market first of all due to poor quality, which was indicated by the trade deficit, which is called in economic theory a negative balance of foreign trade. Foreign manufacturers are now selling about 50% inside the country more than Americans are exporting abroad.

It should be specially emphasized that the condition of the U. S. economy depends to a vast extent on the world-wide oil prices. If they are at a low-rate American economy prospers, otherwise it is in a decline. This phenomenon can seem the reason for the economic crisis of the USA nowadays. That is why America has an urge to control the oil field in Iraq which will give it an opportunity to control also over the world one. In fact the predictable war in Iraq is only one aspect of its policy, aimed to retention its specific role in international economics. In this case the economic interests of the USA coincide with its political ones.

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Справедливая торговля продуктов – Fair trade

… справедливая торговля международный маркированный Справедливая торговля – fair trade, Справедливая торговля Частая тема при обсуждении справедливой торговли – критика существующей организации международной торговли как «несправедливой». Защитники принципов справедливой торговли … Twin – неправительственная организация, занимающаяся вопросами Справедливой торговли. Body Shop International – известная …

5. Trade wars

During somewhere a decade the USA was taking part in so called trade wars. A trade war is the usage of export and import towards the pressure on the trade partners. One country considers the other one to buy not enough its production and demands for more. Otherwise it promises to limit the import from this country. It seems to be a premise for the beginning of a trade war.

At the end of 90-s the USA took part in several trade wars at one time: the meat war, the banana war, the grain war and the tax war. For instance in 1999 the USA blamed Russia for selling the steel for the dumping price in the American market. The U. S. president Bush has recently imposed restrictions and the taxes on the import of steel from Russia. As a respond to such sanction Russia from its side imposed embargo on importing hens from the USA known all over the world as the «Bush’s hensї» due to their genetic modification. This war has not finished yet.

6. Global economic influence

It is common knowledge that the USA is the leading economic power. This fact can be confirmed. The status of the dollar as the world’s chief international currency. The dollar until recently(until the time of emission of the EURO) is used for most international trading. But the present times dollar shares with the EURO its status of the international currency which points to the declining of the US economic power. However high volatility of the American dollar continue to create instability on the world-wide trade markets.

The balance of trade. As I said before The USA has experienced massive trade deficit. This trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world; other countries were able to sell more of their products to the United States, and these sales have provided them with export benefits. While the U. S. trade deficit has benefited foreign economies, it has created severe distress for the American economy.

As a leading producer and exporter of technology the USA contributes to the worldwide economic growth. It exports more machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country.

foreign investment. American businesses and industries operate all over the world. American investment boosts of other economies by providing them employment, technology and new products.

1. Основание американской экономики

Американская экономика описана как свободная система предприятия, которая позволяет частному бизнесу свободно работать за прибыль с минимальным правительственным регулированием. Теоретический основа американской экономической системы была обеспечена Адамом Смитом, экономические идеи которого относительно так называемого «Лайзес-фареи» или свободного соревнования влияли на развитие капитализма. С его точки зрения больше людей производит и торгует при большей конкуренция. Конкуренция приносит пользу обществу, разрешая потребителю искать лучшее из доступного изделия по самой низкой цене. Таким образом рыночные силы, которые Смит назвал невидимой рукой, управляют распределением товаров, в то время как каждый участник на рынке ищет его собственный, личный интерес.

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Американская система экономики

… дипломной работы. Цель дипломной работы – исследование американской экономической и политической системы как основы «нового мирового порядка» в мире после окончания Второй мировой войны. Следует отметить, что американское … власть и влияние, чтобы создать либеральную торговую и устойчивую международную денежно-кредитную … отражает основные положения внешней политики США в конце XXI века. Следующие …

Рынок девятнадцатого столетия использовал минимум правительственного регулирования. С тех пор как Американский капитализм 1930-ых подвергся радикальной перемене. Хотя частные предприятия расцвели, правительственное регулирование теперь существует во многих областях бизнеса в пределах от безопасности изделия до условий труда. Политические консерваторы жалуются на слишком большое количество правительственного регулирования, в то время как либералы за прекращение увеличения правительственной роли в бизнесе и экономике.

Уверенность страны относительно частной инициативы и предприятия произвела внушительный рост. США сегодня — ведущая экономическая держава с высоким уровнем жизни и огромной производительностью в промышленности и сельском хозяйстве.

Это — самая богатая нация в мире.60% всех семейств и индивидуумов находятся в разряде среднего дохода или разряде высокого дохода.

2. Главные отрасли промышленности

США остаются всемирным ведущим производителем товаров и услуг, хотя его превосходство уменьшается, поскольку другие страны становятся более конкурентоспособными на всемирном рынке.

Индустриальное и технологическое положение штатов очень высоко. США — ведущий производитель электрической энергии, алюминия, меди, серы и бумаги, и один из главных производителей природного газа и автомобилей. Никакая другая нация не экспортирует так много высокой технологии как США.

3. Сельское хозяйство

Технологический прогресс ускорил изменения в американском сельском хозяйстве. Сельское хозяйство высоко механизировано и коммерциализировано, но в то же самое время это требует большого количества инвестиций. В производительных сроках достижения этого сектора экономики экстраординарны. Американские фермеры производят достаточно продовольствия для внутреннего потребления и все еще снабжают 15% всемирной потребности в продовольствии.

Необходимо отметить, что за прошлые 30 лет сельскохозяйственные страны были сконцентрированы меньше и меньшем количестве рук в результате того факта, что крупномасштабные специализированные фермы заменяют маленькие фермы семейства.

Однако высокая эффективность и производительность американского сельского хозяйства имеет и отрицательную сторону. С одной стороны сельское хозяйство стало слишком производительным, чтобы быть выгодным многим американским фермерам. Значимое снижение цен, которые являются результатом перепроизводства, часто не приносят фермерам достаточно дохода, чтобы жить. Другая трудность, с которой американский фермер сталкивается — снижение сельскохозяйственного экспорта. Ситуация в настоящее время состоит в том, что доля американских зерновых культур на всемирном рынке сжимается, в то время как акции Европейского Экономического Сообщества расширяются.

4. Внешняя торговля

Помимо сельскохозяйственных изделий большую часть американского экспорта занимает машины, автомобильные изделия, самолеты и химикалии. Ведущий американский импорт — нефтепродукты, продовольствие и напитки, железных и стальных изделий. США — самый большой в мире импортер и экспортер. Несмотря на ее масштабное внутреннее производство, экономика Америки сильно зависит от иностранного импорта. До недавнего времени США экспортировали больше товаров чем импортировало. Однако в существующей ситуации — снижающаяся конкурентоспособность американских товаров на мировом рынке прежде всего из-за низкого качества, которое было обозначено торговым дефицитом, который называют в экономической теории отрицательным балансом внешней торговли. Иностранные изготовители теперь продают приблизительно 50% в стране больше, чем Американцы экспортируют за границу.

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Торговые войны: причины и последствия

… внутрирегиональный товарооборот уже превысил совокупный объем внешней торговли стран этого региона с «внешним» миром. Долговременные, или «хронические» торговые войны в конце концов теряют свою эффективность и затухают, … но чаще вспыхивают с новой силой, когда одна из стран находит …

Необходимо особенно подчеркнуть, что состояние американской экономики в значительной степени отражается на международных ценах на нефть. Если они ниже нормы, американская экономика процветает, иначе начинает снижаться. Это явление может явится причиной экономического кризиса США в настоящее время. Именно поэтому Америка имеет целью управлять месторождением нефти в Ираке, что даст ей возможность контролировать этот рынок одним. Фактически предсказуемая война в Ираке — только один аспект этой политики, нацеленной к содержании его специфической роли в международной экономике. В этом случае экономические интересы США совпадают с его политическими.

5. Торговые войны

Примерно в течение десятилетия США принимали участие в так называемых торговых войнах. Торговая война — использование экспорта и импорта к давлению на торговых партнеров. Одна страна полагает, что другая покупает недостаточно её продукции и требования увеличиваются. Иначе это ведет к ограничению импорта от этой страны. Вероятно это и есть предпосылка для начала торговой войны.

В конце 90-ых США приняли участие в нескольких торговых войнах одновременно: война мяса, банановая война, война зерна и налоговая война. Например в 1999 США обвиняли Россию в продать сталь за демпинговую цену на американском рынке. Американский президент Буш недавно наложил ограничения и налоги на импорт стали из России. Как ответила на такую санкцию Россия – наложением с ее стороны эмбарго на импортирование куриц из США, известных во всем мире как ножки «Буша» из-за их генетической модификации. Эта война все же не закончилась.

6. Глобальное экономическое влияние

Это — общепринятая истина, что США — ведущая экономическая держава. Этот факт может быть подтвержден. Статус доллара определяется как всемирная главная международная валюта. Доллар до недавнего времени (во время выпуска ЕВРО) использовался в большинстве международных торговых операциях. Но доллар в настоящие время разделяет с ЕВРО статус международной валюты, что указывает на снижение американской экономической мощи. Однако высокая изменчивость американского доллара продолжает создавать неустойчивость на международных торговых рынках.

Торговый баланс. Как я сказал прежде США испытали масштабный торговый дефицит. Эта торговая неустойчивость стала расти в остальной части мира; другие страны были способны продать больше их изделий Соединенным Штатам, и эти продажи объяснялись их экспортными выгодами. В то время как американский торговый дефицит принес пользу иностранным экономикам, это создало серьезное бедствие для американской экономики.

Как ведущий производитель и экспортер технологии, США внесло вклад во всемирный экономический рост. Они экспортирует больше машин и инвестирует больше денег в технологическое исследование, чем любая другая страна.

Иностранные инвестиции. Американские виды коммерческой деятельности и отрасли промышленности работают во всем мире. Американские инвестиции повышают из других экономик на если их занятость, технологии и новые изделия.

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Источники гражданского и торгового права зарубежных стран

… частности, интерес представляет корпоративное право, опыт защиты прав потребителей. Происходящие в последние годы процессы международной и региональной интеграции оказали существенное влияние на гражданское и торговое право зарубежных стран. Участие России в международных соглашениях (в том …

able — способный

accelerated — ускоренный

achievements — достижения

advancement — продвижение

affluent — приток

aimed — нацеленный

aircraft — самолет

allocation — распределение

allowing — позволение

although — хотя

aspect — аспект

automotive products – автомобильные изделия

available — доступный

bananawar – банановая война

benefits — выгоды

beverages — напитки

blamed — обвиненный

bring — принести

bush’shensї – ножки буша

chief — руководитель

coincide — совпасть

commercialized — коммерциализированный

competitiveness — конкурентоспособность

complain — жалуйтесь

confirmed — подтвержденный

considers — рассматривает

consumer — потребитель

consumption — потребление

contributes – вносить вклад

copper — медь

create — создать

crops – зерновые культуры

currency — валюта

decade — десятилетие

decline — снижение

demands — требования

despite – несмотря на

development — развитие

difficulty — трудность

diminishing — уменьшение

distress — бедствие

domestic — внутренний

due — должный

dumping — демпинг

during – в течение

efficiency — эффективность

embargo — эмбарго

emission — эмиссия

emphasized — подчеркнутый

employment — занятость

enhance — увеличить

enterprise — предприятие

exists — существует

expand — расширяться

experienced — опытный

exportingabroad – экспорт за границей

extent — степень

extraordinary — экстраординарный

fewer — меньше

flourishes — расцветы

foreign — иностранный

foreigntrade – внешняя торговля

foundation — фонд

genetic — генетический

grainwar – зерновая война

growth — рост

handї control – куриный контроль

heavily — тяжело

hens — курицы

high-incomerank – разряд высокого-дохода

huge — огромный

imposed — наложенный

impressive — внушительный

income — доход

indicated — обозначенный

influence — влияние

international currency – международная валюта

investment — инвестиции

investment boosts — стимулирует рост

iron — железо

lands — страны

large-scale — крупномасштабный

lowcropprices – низкие цены на урожай

lowestprice – самая низкая цена

low-rate – низкая норма

machinery — машины

margin — край

massive — массивный

meat war – война мяса

mechanized — механизированный

middle-income – среднего дохода

5 стр., 2447 слов

Эссе валютные войны

… торговли и конкурентоспособность товаров на мировых рынках. В этом смысле, валютные войны, то есть девальвация валют относительно друг друга, – … в интервью The Wall Street Journal после речи на эту тему в Экономическом клубе в Нью-Йорке. Как отмечает … экспорта, низкий обменный курс национальной валюты, может являться существенным преимуществом. С начала 1980-х годов Международный валютный фонд …

modification — модификация

occupy — занять

operate — работать

opportunity — возможность

otherwise — иначе

overproduction — перепроизводство

participant — участник

partners — партнеры

phenomenon — явление

policy — политика

poor — бедный

predictable — предсказуемый

premise — предпосылка

pressure — давление

private — частный

productivity — производитель

profit — прибыль

profitable — выгодный

promoted — подвинутый

prospers — процветает

quality — качество

ranging — расположение

reason — причина

recently — недавно

relianceinitiative – инициатива уверенности

remains — остается

replaces — заменяет

requires — требует

research — исследование

respond — ответить

restrictions — ограничения

retention — задержание

safetyconservatives – безопасные консерваторы

search — поиск

sector — сектор

selling — продажа

services — услуги

shares — доли

shrinking — сокращение

standpoint – точка зрения

steel — сталь

sulphur — сера

superiority — превосходство

supply — поставка

termed — названный

thus – таким образом

top — вершина

tradewars – торговые войны

undergone — подвергся

until — до

urge — убеждение

usage — использование

volatility — котировка

worldwide — во всем мире

world-wide – по всему миру

yet – все же

Economy of the United States of America

Economy of the United
States of America

CONTENT

1. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA2. CHATACTERISTICS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE USA

.1 The basis of the us economy

.2 United States Exports

.3 United States Imports3. THE MOST IMPORTANT SECTORS
OF THE ECONOMY OF THE USA

.1 Productive sector

.2 The service sector

.3 Agriculture of USALIST OF LITERATURE

INTRODUCTION

The USA is the economically power full country. A large share
of minerals, financial and manpower resources belongs to it. That’s why
studying this country, its language and history we shouldn’t avoid the main
economic and industrial branches, their structure, and main tendencies of
development.the end 20 century the United States of America are the largest
state in the world. The country is located in all climatic belts that favours
to agriculture and tourism, has more than hundred kinds of minerals. Having
five percent of the world population the country extracts the fifth part of
world production of copper, coal and oil. The agriculture of the United States
delivers on the world market of 50 % of corn, 20 % of beef, pork, mutton, about
one third of wheat. The USA – the largest world buyer (13 % of world import)
and the seller (18 % of world import). And, that is characteristic for the
American economy, the state enterprises can be counted on fingers (post service
and the commission on nuclear researches), even airlines and telephone system
in the USA are privatized. The American industry is characterized with a
priority of the high technologies creating production on the basis of the high
technologies.aim of the research is to study the main aspects of USA economy
and industry, to understand its position in the World economy. And the main
objectives of the studying are:

.to describe the economic situation in the USA in the last
century,

.to describe the economic situation nowadays;

. to single-out main brunches of industry, paying attention
to the service sector and transportation service,

.to describe agriculture of the USA. practical value of the
research is to help to study more about the country, the language of witch we
learn, with the aim of successful communication and social competence.

CHAPTER 1.
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The United States is situated in the
central part of the North American continent (except for Alaska and Hawaii). It
is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and by the Pacific Ocean in the
west. In the north it borders Canada and in the south it borders Mexico. The
United States is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada,
and China. It has an area of about 10 million square kilometers and its
population is over 270 million people. The great majority of the population is
English-speaking Americans. There are many ethnic groups in the United States.
The largest group is Black Americans (about 12% of the population).US consists of
50 states and the District of Columbia. It is a special federal area where the
capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The largest state is Alaska.
Hawaii is one of the smallest states; it is a group of islands in the Pacific
Ocean. California, New-York, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio are
the most heavily populated states, and Wyoming, Vermont and Alaska are the
least populated states. The largest cities are New-York, Los-Angeles, Chicago,
San-Francisco and Philadelphia.continental part of the USA consists of 4
geographical parts: 2 highland and 2 lowland regions. The highland regions are
the Appalachian Mountains in the east and the Cordillera in the west. The
Appalachian Mountains are ancient, strongly destroyed mountains of no great
height. The valleys between them are rich in coal. It is the oldest mountain
system in the US.the Appalachian Mountains of the east, the Cordillera is not a
continuous chain. It consists of several high ranges, which are the Rocky
Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range on the west.
The Rocky Mountains are considered to be young, high, rough, and irregular in
shape. Between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains there is the
vast Central Plain and the Plateau of Prairies or the Great Plains.main rivers
of the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, the Colorado, the
Columbia and the Hudson River. The five Great Lakes, between the USA and
Canada, include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake
Ontario. They are all joined together by short rivers or canals, and the St.
Lawrence River joins them to the Atlantic Ocean. The region around the Great
Lakes is known for its changeable weather. In the west of the USA there is
another lake called the Great Salt Lake.USA has many natural resources, such as
coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The economy of the US is based upon free
enterprise.United States is one of the few countries in the world that has no
’official’ national language. The basic language spoken throughout the country
is American English. The second language is Spanish.

CHAPTER 2.
CHATACTERISTICS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE USA

 

2.1 The
basis of the us economy

The American economy is described as a free enterprise
system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with
minimum government regulation. The theoretical foundation of the American
economic system was provided by Adam Smith whose economic ideas of free
competition influenced the development of capitalism. From his standpoint the
more people manufacture and trade the greater the competition. Competition
benefits society by allowing the consumer to search for the best available
product at the lowest price. Thus market forces, which Smith termed the invisible
hands, control the allocation of goods while each participant in the market is
seeking for his own self-interest. the nineteen century market operated with a
minimum government regulations. Since the 1930-s American capitalism has
undergone a radical changes. Although a private enterprise flourishes,
government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product
safety to labor conditions. Political conservatives complain of too much
government regulation while the liberals are out for the enhance of government
role in business and economy. country’s reliance on private initiative and
enterprise has produced impressive growth. economy of the United States today
is the world’s largest national economy. Its nominal GDP was estimated to be $14.3
trillion in 2009, approximately a quarter of nominal global GDP. Its GDP at
purchasing power parity was also the largest in the world, approximately a
fifth of global GDP at purchasing power parity. The U.S. economy also maintains
a very high level of output per capita. In 2009, it was estimated to have a per
capita GDP of $46,381, the 6th highest in the world. Historically, the U.S.
economy has kept a stable overall GDP growth rate, a low unemployment rate, and
high levels of research and capital investment funded by both national and,
because of decreasing saving rates, increasingly by foreign investors. It has
been the world’s largest national economy since 1870 and remains the world’s
largest manufacturer, representing 19% of the world’s manufacturing output. In
2009, consumer spending coupled with government health care spending
constituted 70% of the American economy. About 30% of the entire world’s
millionaire population reside in the United States (in 2009).[14] Furthermore,
40% of the world’s billionaires are American. The US is also home to the
world’s largest stock exchange, the New York Stock Exchange. It also boasts the
world’s largest gold reserves and the world’s largest gold depository, the New
York Federal Reserve Bank. The United States is also home to 139 of the world’s
500 largest companies, which is almost twice that of any other country. A large
contributor to the country’s success has also been a very strong and stable
currency. The US dollar holds about 60% of world reserves, as compared to its
top competitor, the euro, which controls only about 24%.the 1960s, the United
States economy absorbed savings from the rest of the world. The phenomenon is
subject to discussion among economists. The US is by far the most heavily
invested-into country in the world, with foreign investments made in the US
measuring almost $2.4 trillion, which is more than twice that of any other
country. The US is also by far the largest investor in the world, with US
investments in foreign countries totaling over $3.3 trillion, which is almost
twice that of any other country. Like other developed countries, the United
States faces retiring baby boomers that have already begun withdrawing from
their Social Security accounts; however, the American population is young and
growing when compared to Europe or Japan. The United States public debt is in
excess of $13 trillion and continues to grow at a rate of about $3.83 billion
each day. Total public and private debt was $50.2 trillion at the end of the
first quarter of 2010, or 3.5 times GDP. Domestic financial assets totaled $131
trillion and domestic financial liabilities totaled $106 trillionAmerican labor
market has attracted immigrants from all over the world and has one of the
world’s highest migration rates. The United States is ranked second, down from
first in 2008-2009 due to the economic crisis, in the Global Competitiveness
Report. The country is one of the world’s largest and most influential
financial markets, home to major stock and commodities exchanges like NASDAQ,
NYSE, and AMEX.

2.2 United
States Exports

Exports in the United States
increased to 193910 USD Million in March of 2014 from 189963 USD Million in
February of 2014. Exports in the United States averaged 45133.26 USD Million
from 1950 until 2014, reaching an all time high of 194644 USD Million in November
of 2013 and a record low of 772 USD Million in March of 1950. Exports in the
United States is reported by the U.S. Census Bureau.

, 1 – United States Exports

United States is the world’s third largest exporter. Main
exports are: Industrial Supplies (34 percent of total exports) and Capital
Goods (33 percent). Foods, feeds, and beverages account for 9 percent;
Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines for another 9 percent and Consumer
goods for 12 percent. Main exports partners are: Canada (19 percent of total
exports), European Union (17 percent), Mexico (14 percent), China (7 percent)
and Japan (5 percent). This page provides – United States Exports – actual
values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and
news. 2013 exports from America amounted to US$1.579 trillion, up 49.4% since
2009. United States top 10 exports accounted for 68.4% of the overall value of
its global shipments.on statistics from the International Monetary Fund’s World
Economic Outlook Database, America’s total Gross Domestic Product amounted to
$16.724 trillion in 2013., exports accounted for about 9.4% of total US
economic output.
Given America’s population of 316.4 million people, the total $1.579 trillion
in 2013 US exports translates to roughly $4,989 for every person in the
country. This compares with a benchmark $2,545 in exports per person for the
world’s total exports (assuming an estimated global population of 7,095,217,980
per the CIA World Factbook).

United States Top 10
Exports

The following export product groups represent the highest
dollar value in American global shipments during 2013. Also shown is the
percentage share each export category represents in terms of US overall
exports.

1. Machinery: $213,108,199,000 (13.5% of total
exports)

2.      Electronic equipment: $165,604,449,000 (10.5%)

.        Mineral fuels including oil: $148,426,743,000
(9.4%)

4.      Vehicles excluding trains and
streetcars: $133,640,479,000 (8.5%)

5.      Aircraft and spacecraft: $115,380,944,000 (7.3%)

6.      Optical, technical and
medical apparatus: $84,281,276,000 (5.3%)

.        Pearls, precious stones,
precious metals and coins: $72,830,232,000 (4.6%)

8.      Plastics: $60,836,970,000 (3.9%)

.        Organic chemicals: $46,510,903,000 (2.9%)

10. Pharmaceutical products: $39,742,717,000 (2.5%)

Many of the industries supporting
these exports, such as manufacturing aircraft and medical apparatus, involve
highly sophisticated and advance processes. America’s unemployment rate
improved to an estimated 7.3% as of July 2013 compared to an unemployment rate
of 8.1% in the rest of world for 2012. It seems logical that scientists,
skilled tradespersons and international trade professionals supporting the
above exports will be in demand.note that the results listed above are at the
2-digit Harmonized Tariff System code level. Among the top 10 U.S. exports
above, mineral fuels including oil represent the fastest-growing export product
posting a 170.2% gain over the five-year period ending in 2013. Pearls, precious
stones, precious metals and coins were up 89.6% while vehicles other than
trains and streetcars improved 81.6% over the same period.

2.3 United
States Imports

Imports in the United States
increased to 234288 USD Million in March of 2014 from 231837 USD Million in
February of 2014. Imports in the United States averaged 57551 USD Million from
1950 until 2014, reaching an all time high of 234295 USD Million in March of
2012 and a record low of 577 USD Million in March of 1950. Imports in the
United States is reported by the U.S. Census Bureau.

. 2 – United States Imports

United States is the world’s largest
importer. U.S. main imports are Industrial Supplies (32 percent of total
imports) with crude oil alone accounting for half of this category. Others
include: Capital Goods (24 percent); Automotive vehicles, parts, and engines
(13 percent); Consumer Goods (12 percent) and Foods, Feeds, and Beverages (5
percent). Main imports partners are: China (18 percent of total imports),
European Union (16 percent), Canada (14 percent), Mexico (12 percent) and Japan
(6 percent). This page provides – United States Imports – actual values,
historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news.

The United States of America is nicknamed the Land of the
Free. But when it comes to America’s top import partners at least in North
America, perhaps that should be the “Land of Free Trade” given a third of
American exports are delivered to Canada and Mexico. The 3 countries are free
trade partners under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).world’s
second-largest exporter, the USA shipped US$1.579 trillion worth of products
around the globe in 2013. That figure represents 8.7% of worldwide exports
estimated at $18.06 trillion for 2012.

America’s Top Import Partnersis a list of the USA’s top 15
trade partners that imported the most American shipments by dollar value during
2013. Also shown is each import country’s percentage share of total USA
exports.

1. Canada:
$300,244,595,000 (19% of total American exports)

2. Mexico: $226,152,927,000 (14.3%)

3.      China: $122,016,318,000 (7.7%)

.        Japan: $65,144,805,000 (4.1%)

.        Germany: $47,442,249,000 (3%)

.        United Kingdom: $47,355,408,000 (3%)

.        Brazil: $44,115,969,000 (2.8%)

.        Netherlands: $42,654,340,000 (2.7%)

.        Hong Kong: $42,450,374,000 (2.7%)

.        South Korea: $41,555,044,000 (2.6%)

11. France: $34,091,295,000 (2.2%)

12.    Belgium: $31,727,047,000 (2%)

.        Singapore: $30,723,872,000 (1.9%)

.        Switzerland: $27,002,011,000 (1.7%)

.        Australia: $26,047,870,000 (1.6%)

Over two-thirds (71.5%) of American
exports in 2013 were delivered to the above 15 trade partners.

Among these import nations, the
United Kingdom and Germany decreased imports from America by the smallest
percentages from 2009 to 2013 – 3.6% for the UK and 9.8% for Germany. The other
countries showed a minimum gain of 26.1% for France up to the 101.1% increase
for Hong Kong importers.
Hong Kong has been aggressively moving up the list of America’s top import
partners since 2010.

CHAPTER 3.
THE MOST IMPORTANT SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE USA

 

3.1
Productive sector

The industry of the USA takes a special place in the
international division of labour. The variety of industries, a wealth wih
various raw materials and qualified personnel, advanced research base has
allowed the American industry to provide mass production of a various batch
production and release of unique devices and the equipment both for internal,
and for the world market.greatest growth is characteristic for the branches
defining and closely connected with a military production. For last decades in
new branches were allocated:

The rocket industry,

Manufacture of space technics,

The semi-conductor industry,

Manufacture of the computer,

Scientific instrument making,

Manufacture of machine tools with programmed control,

The laser, vacuum, oxygen industry,

Manufacture of the equipment for prevention of pollution and
clearing of environment,

The industry of fuel elements and others.the average in a
manufacturing industry each 4 years it is updated not less than 20 % of let out
production.USA take a visible place on extraction of some the major minerals –
coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, phosphorites. there was
not enough own resources, and after 2 world wars of the USA from the exporter
have turned to the largest importer of oil, iron ore, nonferrous metals,
bauxites, manganous ore, antimony, diamonds, cobalt etc.location of the mining
industry on areas USA there are the appreciable shifts connected with change of
structure of branch, mainly growth of a share of extracted power resources. The
South share- the basic area of an oil recovery, coal and gas increases in cost
of production of the mining industry. The North and West share where basically
ores colour and ferrous metals ores are extracted accordingly decreases. The
mining industry of the USA is closely connected with fuel and energy a complex.
In the USA it is developed about 3 bln. in kw-h. the electric power. The power
balance structure in comparison with the pre-war period has undergone changes.
Oil and gas now prevails. There was a difference between structure of stocks
(oil and gas of 7 %, coal of 93 %) and consumption structure (oil and gas
approximately 75 %, coal – 25 %) fuel resources of the USA.

The greatest value for a power economy of the country has oil
industry . The leading role in an oil recovery is played by southwest states –
Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexicos delivering about 70 % of oil extracted
in the country. Within this area oil is extracted and in a shelf zone of Gulf
of Mexico. Large oil fields are available at Pacific coast in the State of
California, in mountain state of Wyoming. Last yearsthere begun wide
development of deposits on Alaska.

The USA possesses a powerful petroleum-refining industry. The
largest oil refining factories of firms: «Exon corporation» Louisiana and
Texas, «Texaco incorporaid» in Texas, «Amoco oil» also in Texas are located in
states. Placing of oil refining of the USA considerably differs from an oil
recovery. The considerable part of capacities takes places not only in extraction
areas, but also in consumption areas, that is in the major industrial knots of
the Northeast, in the port centers, on the lines of the main oil
pipelines.central areas of concentration of oil refining factories are:

Coast of Gulf of Mexico (a strip in width of 200-300 km on
the territory of states Texas, Louisiana, Mississipi),

Southern and the Central California,

A strip of the Atlantic coast from New York to Baltimore
(mainly a mouth of the rivers Hudsons and Delaware).

Areas of deposits of natural gas basically coincide with
petroliferous pools. On a share of 5 states – Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New
Mexico and Kansas is necessary over 90 % of extraction.

On a coal mining of the USA occupies 1 place in the world (1
billion t. per year). As a result of an energy crisis and sharp increase of the
prices for oil, both on external, and internal market in the USA big attention
began to be given to working out of profitable ways of production of liquid
fuel from coal. It is typical, that the active role in these researches is
played by leading oil monopolies of the country.

The electric power industry is among most quickly developing
branches of economy of the USA. The largest state electricity supply system of
the USA is the system hydraulic and thermal power plants in the pool of the
rivers Tennessee and Cumberland, operated river Tennessee Administration. But
about 80 % of all electric power are developed in the USA in the private power
plants, including 4 % -power plants of the industrial enterprises.hydroelectric
power station’s share in the electric power manufacture steadily decreases,
though hydropower constructions use less than 35 % of potential resources of
all rivers. About 60 % of all electric power developed on hydroelectric power
stations in the West states including 48 % – on Pacific states. Large
hydroelectric power plants are constructed in the USA also on Niagara,
Tennessee and in the river Missouri headwaters. Unlike thermal power plant all
largest hydroelectric power plants of the USA belong to the state or local
authorities. Their number concern: Grand Coulee on the river Colombia, John-Day
on the same river, Robert-Mozes on the river Niagara and others. Projects of
expansion of capacities of the largest hydroelectric power plants of the
Pacific Northwest are developed.

Over 80 % of the electric power in the USA it is made at
thermal plants. The share of the thermal power plant, using as a fuel coal,
gives 54 % of capacities, natural gas – 27 %, black oil – 19 %. In connection
with crisis in the markets of liquid fuel a number of plants using black oil
are changed last years for coal.In the location of electric power industry of
the USA the tendency of gradual strengthening of value of southern states, in
particular South Atlantic, and the Southwest centre is distinctly observed.

From the middle of 60th years of 20 centuries in the USA
development of nuclear power was sharply accelerated. The basic areas of
concentration of the atomic power plants – the Northeast centre and the South
Atlantic states. But now the atomic power plants locate on country territory
already in regular more intervals and basically tend to large industrially-city
agglomerations.

The important feature of location of a manufacturing industry
of the USA – practically universal strengthening of rates of its
suburbanization, that is the shift of industrial production from the central
parts of agglomerations in their residential suburbs. Here the factories
demanding the big floor spaces and the developed infrastructure (automobile,
aviation, cement, chemical, oil refining, heavy mechanical engineering etc.),
as a rule, take places.. To the factors which are “pushing out” the
industry in suburbs, concern: higher price for the ground areas in the central
parts of city agglomerations, necessity of creation of extensive platforms for
parking of cars (the area of such parking near new factories come nearer in the
sizes to the area of the enterprise), action of laws on preservation of the
environment in cities, «crisis of the big cities» where the central parts are
overpopulated by rather poor population.machine engineering industry
enterprises locates on country territory extremely non-uniformly – more than 60
% of them are located in the industrial centers of the North and at Pacific
coast, and the share of these areas in cost of the production makes 80 %. The major
centers of mechanical engineering and metal working of the USA: Los Angeles,
Chicago, Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Saint Louis,
Milwaukee, Dallas – Fort Worth on which share it is necessary over 40 %
conditionally-net production mechanical engineering and metal working.largest
branchtransport mechanical engineering of the USA – motor industry. Cars – the
basic vehicle for one million Americans, and cargo automobile transportations
take the important place in transport to country system. In manufacture of
cars, their sale and commercial operation it is occupied about 20 million
persons, that is every sixth working American direct or indirect is connected
with motor industry. Release of cars is in the USA at high level; however this branch
is extremely subjected to tactical fluctuations and recessions which directly
affect both motor industry, and allied industries: metallurgical, chemical and
a rubber industry, machine-tool construction etc., causing lack of capacities
and unemployment. In the American market the competition from foreign cars
delivered mainly by Japan and Germany grows. The successful competition of
these cars was promoted by an energy crisis and sharp increase of the prices
for fuel.industry – one of the most monopolised branches of mechanical
engineering of the USA. The share of “the big three» -of the concerns
«General motors», “Ford”, and “Crysler” – is about 97 % of
national manufacture of automobile and 85 % of lorries. Outside of the USA
these monopolies supervise almost 25 % of world production of cars.motor
industry placing considerable concentration of manufacture in Lake-districts –
60 % of conditionally-net production branch is typical. Only to one State of
Michigan belong over 30 % of production of the motor industry which basic part
is developed in Detroit and its vicinities, and also in nearby cities Flint,
Lansing and Ann Arbor. So considerable concentration of motor industry in the
south of Michigan is explained by the wealth of area with qualified personnel,
the metallurgical, metal cutting and machine-tool constructing enterprises, a
favourable geographical position in centre Lake-districts, a capacious
commodity market, and also historical traditions. However the tendency which
has outlined still to 2 world war to expanding car assembly factories and to
their approach to peripheral commodity markets amplifies.aviation industry of
the country – which has grown in days of 2 world wars, with development of
military rocket production and expansion of space programs to the USA has
turned in essence to new branch of the industry. Aviarocket monopolies
“Makdonnel-Duglas”, “Boeing”, «Rockwell», «Hughes
aircraft», for many years take the first places in the sizes of the
governmental military orders and represent a basis of a military-industrial
complex of the USA. The appreciable place in the country aircraft industries
occupies release of the civil aviation vehicles, including liners, easy planes,
the helicopters which considerable part is exported.area this industry – is the
Pacific coast with the main centres Los Angeles, Seattle, San Diego, San Jose.
Over 60 % of all manufacture of aviation engines, the devices, completing knots
and details it is concentrated to the Industrial East of the USA (the basic
centres – Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Hartford, New York, Boston, Buffalow). In
the West Phoenix, Los Angeles concern number of the large centres
engine-building in the aerospace industry Sacramento.ship-building industry of
the country undergoes the period of long stagnation. Building of the military
ships both on private shipyards, and on shipyards of Naval Forces of the
country has the considerable sizes only. The basic types of the floated
military ships – aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines, patrol ships. The
largest shipyards of the private companies at the Atlantic coast the countries
are located in Newport-Njuse (state of Virginia, firm «Newport-news
ship-building and dry dock») and Gronte (the State of Connecticut, the firm
«General dynamics») – the leading centre of designing and building of nuclear
submarines; large shipyards are available also in Boston, Baltimore,
Philadelphia, New York. At coast of Gulf of Mexico (Mississipi), New Orleans
and Mobile (Alabama); at the Pacific coast large shipyards are in San
Francisco, Seattle, San Diego, Los Angeles.of the basic branches of a machine
engineering industry of the USA – the general mechanical engineering –
represents in essence the whole conglomerate of various branches. The American
statistics includes the machine-tool constructing and tool industry,
agricultural mechanical engineering, manufacture in the general mechanical
engineering and hoisting-and-transport mechanisms, the process equipment for
polygraphic, food, light and other industries, manufacture of turbines and
internal combustion engines, the trading and municipal equipment, office
equipment, the various common industrial equipment (including bearings, pumps
and compressors, power transmissions, industrial furnaces etc.) . The general
mechanical engineering – the most traditional branch of a machine engineering
industry of the country; the general drawing of its placing throughout many
decades is conservative also. On a share of industrial states of the North it
is necessary about 80 % of all occupied in branch; including over 40 % Ohio and
Michigan concentrates in Lake – districts, mainly in Illinois.quickly growing
branch of mechanical engineering of the USA – manufacture of radio-electronic
equipment and a communication facility. According to the shipments of the
electronic equipment the USA 3-4 times advance the basic competitors – Japan
and Germany. share of the American firms is 40 % of all manufacture of the
computers in the developed countries. Prevalence of the USA in release of the
computers industrial and military-oriented is especially sufficient; at the
same time in manufacture of household electronics the American companies do not
maintain a competition to Japanese and other South Asian countries, in some
cases even in home market.

The radio-electronic industry takes places on country
territory as a whole a little in regular more intervals, than other large
branches mechanical engineering. Chicago, New York, Boston concern the major
centres of the radio-electronic industry of the countryThe largest enterprise
for release of the computers the firm “International business machines» is
located in Pockipsy (New York), the telephone and cable equipment of firm
«Western the electrician» – in Chicago.chemical industry is along with
mechanical engineering is one of leading industries of the USA. On the rates of
growth the chemical industry considerably advances a manufacturing industry as
a whole, conceding only to radio electronics. Manufacture of chemical
production in the USA doubles for each 10-12 years. Technical progress promoted
sharp increase in demand at synthetic chemicals with in advance set properties,
first of all on polymeric materials (chemical fibres, plastic, synthetic
pitches) which mostly are synthesised on the basis of petrochemical raw
materials. Value of some technical gases (oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and its
connections, helium), processes used for an intensification in metallurgy and
chemical technology, in the form of components rocket fuel, for space research
etc. has sharply amplified for last years

The South enterprises make over half of all technical
chemicals developed in the country (that is the chemical semiproducts arriving
for the further processing within the same branch or used in other industries,
in building and on transport), 60 % of polymeric materials, over 50 % of
fertilizers and pesticides etc., that is rather cheap and large-tonnage
products.

The north where the overwhelming part of the population of
the USA is concentrated and the enterprises of a manufacturing industry of the
country, remains the basic area of manufacture and consumption of chemicals in
the USA. However about 60 % made in the north of chemical production (in cost
expression) make ready to the use low-tonnage and expensive chemicals: medicines,
soap and washing-up liquids, perfumery-cosmetic products, dyes. The most part
of specified production is consumed within area, however export expensive and
low-tonnage chemicals in southern and the West defines North specialisation in
a territorial division of labour in the chemical industry of the country.
Inorganic in the north inorganic and organic technical chemicals do not satisfy
local demand, and their considerable part is imported from southern states. The
major centres of the chemical industry of area are New York, Chicago,
Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Saint Louis, Indianapolis. About 20 % of all tyres it
is developed in the USA in the largest centre of a rubber industry – the city
of Akron (Ohio).

The nuclear industry having huge military value is closely
connected with the chemical industry. In a complex of the enterprises of this
branch the major place is occupied with factories on manufacture nuclear
combustible (uranium 235, трития,
plutonium), constructed during 2 world wars by the government of the USA, and
then transferred in operation to private concerns. The centres of manufacture
of split materials are Oak Ridge (Tennessee), Paducah (Kentucky), Savanna
(South Carolina), Portsmouth (Ohio), Hanford (Washington).important place in a
national economy is occupied with light industry branches among which are
allocated textile both especially sewing and knitted though rates of growth of
these branches are low also their relative role in industrial production
decreases. In the textile industry the structure of release of fabrics after 2
world war has considerably changed – the share of the fabrics developed on the
basis of artificial and synthetic fibres, and also the combined fabrics has
grown, having made almost half of all production of branch. At the same time
manufacture of cotton fabrics was reduced to a half , and manufacture woollen –
almost in 8 times. It is necessary to underline, that manufacture of synthetic
and artificial fibres is carried out at the specialised factories included by
the American statistics in structure of the chemical industry, and release of
fabrics on their basis is actually textile manufacture.of the textile industry
of the USA from the beginning of 20 centuries has undergone considerable
changes. In a current of several decades the branch has in essence moved from
traditional textile area – New England – to the South Atlantic states, where a
cheap labour and closeness to a cotton belt of the country. After 2 world war
in this area and the next Southeast centre the largest enterprises of the USA
for release of synthetic fibres have been constructed practically: kapron,
nylon,dacron, fibers. To the share of southern states belongs 80 % of release
of cotton fabrics and fabrics on the basis of chemical fibres. The largest
centres of the South are Greensboro – Winston-Salem – High Point (Northern
Carolina), Charlotte (Northern Carolina), Greenville (South Carolina), Columbus
(Georgia). clothing industry shift on the South also is swept up. To the share
of the enterprises of the South (mainly small factories which are letting out
inexpensive men’s wear) belongs over 40 % conditionally-net production to
branch. However value of the old centres of a clothing industry in the
Northeast USA, despite absolute and relative decrease in output, is still great
enough. One of national legislators of a fashion Los Angeles which promotion is
connected with manufacture of a female dress under Hollywood “film
standards” became the considerable centre last years.

The big development has received in the USA the flavoring
industry. The branch share makes 12 %. The major branches of the
food-processing industry of the USA concern meat, dairy, manufacture alcoholic
and soft drinks, canning and flour-grinding. In connection with a rise in prices
for articles of food in the USA the big attention is given to the manufacture
of various sorts of substitutes of natural products, the aromatic substances
added in a foodstuff. Manufacture of the frozen foodstuff (including snack,
national dishes, dessert products, creams etc.) and various canned food
develops.  Food-processing industry placing on country territory in a whole
differs relative uniformity. Large cities, as a rule, are the leading centres
of branch. However areas of concentration of the enterprises of the
flour-grinding industry is in the Northwest centre and along coast of Great
Lakes (the leading centres are allocated: Minneapolis – Saint Paul, Kansas
City, Буффало); the meat industry – is
in Chicago, Kansas City and Omaha (Nebraska); dairy and cheese-making -is in
states Wisconsin and Minnesota; canning – is in California. The largest centres
of manufacture of confectionery products are New York and Chicago; whisky –
Louisville (Kentucky); Coca-Colas – Atlanta; beer – Saint Louis and Milwaukee.
Manufacture of cigarettes basically is concentrated within Piedmont and
Kentucky. The basic centres are – Greensboro – Winston-Salem – High Point and
Durham in Northern Carolina, Richmond in Virginia and Louisville in Kentucky.
Release of cigars from the American tobacco concentrates in the Northeast (the
basic centre – Philadelphia).

3.2 The
service sector

The service sector- is the largest sector
of economy of the USA. In 1997 it has given 4,43 bln. dollars, or 54 % of gross
national product, and 4/5 workplaces in the country.The service sector includes
set of various branches and trades. A complex of business, professional and
personal services – the greatest and most diverse group – includes educational
and medical services, social service, hotel business, the advertising industry,
management, agencies in public relations, and also the numerous enterprises of the
household services given to corporations or separate citizens: laundries,
dry-cleaners, the car-care centre, etc. In 1996 all this service complex has
given more than 1 bln. dollars, i.e. approximately 15 % of gross national
product, and in it 45 % of all labour of sector of services have been occupied.
The contribution of financial and insurance institutes and real estate agencies
too has made 15 % of gross national product, however in them 8 % of workers of
sphere of services are occupied only. This group includes banks,
loan-and-savings associations, the credit unions and other financial
organisations, commodity and stock exchanges, agencies on operations with the
real estate. Other largest sector of sphere of services – the enterprises of
wholesale and retail trade, it includes restaurants and bars, firms of
wholesale trade, shops, and companies dealing with vehicles sale. In 1996
almost 30 % of workers of sphere of service have been occupied in trade, and to
their share it was approximately 1/6 costs of all made services. Workers of
public sector have made 11 % of all services occupied in the sector and have
made 1/8 gross national products. At last, to a share of the enterprises of
transport, communication and municipal services in 1996 belonged approximately
9 % of cost of services and approximately 6,5 % of all occupied in service
sphere. Automobile, railway and air transport, telecommunication companies,
radio-and TV-broadcasting corporations, and also the public service enterprises
arehere.of growth of employment in sphere of services have surpassed all other
branches and during the period with 1979 on 1995 have made 2,3 % a year that
has led to creation in the country of 24 million new workplaces. Rates of
growth of employment as a whole on the country for the same period have made
only 1,4 % a year. As a result employment has increased in sphere of services
from 70 % almost to 80 % from the general number of the working. As the wages
(together with privileges) make workers of sphere of services approximately 75
% of wages on manufacture, labour outflow in the industry of service from 1979
on 1995 has led to the general decrease in a payment approximately on 10 %.

3.3
Agriculture of USA

Almost 21mln. people or about 17 % of all population works in
the agriculture of USA. Nearly 3 millions independent farms deliver feed
products to the American consumers. The area of an average farm in the USA
makes about 400 acres. In 1984 there were more than 2.3 million farms in the
country. However, the very large farms -those with 1000 acres and more account
for more than 40% of farm acreage. largest manufacturers of grains making up
2,3% of total of farms, produce about 50 % of wheat in the country. Similarly,
the largest 2 % of the manufacturers of chickens – broilers own 70 % of market
sales.

Number of firms producing
selected products in the USA. 1980es.Numbers of firms producing
product44607593770411445bean 511229179141nuts 23046products 1972691354309

There is therefore some concentrations of agricultural
production in hands of the largest manufacturers in the USA. But even largest
agricultural manufacturers accept the established prices for production. For
example, 2 % of the manufacturers of grain, that make up 50 % of grain
production in the USA, are represented by 27000 independent firms. The new
firms can also penetrate into the majority of agricultural branches with
relative ease. There are special branches – exceptions. For example, there have
been state regulation that have limited for many years the number of tobacco
producers. However, even domestic manufacturer, who are protected against entry
must compete for sales to the foreign manufacturers in the export markets.tax
regulation plays important roll in encouraging of farm development in USA.
Since 1988 the tax rates on profit in an agriculture have been established at a
rate of 15 and 28% whereas earlier they ranged from 11 up to 50 % with the
intermediate rates. Farms with the income up to 50000 dollars pay tax at the 15
% rate, and every next 25000 dollars at – 28% rate. Since 1989 the size of the
tax-free profit has increased up to 2000, and since 1990 – up to 5000 dollars.
Calculation of surtax in USA agroindustrial complex has a number of
peculiarities, each of which can represent a tax privilege. The USA tax laws
gives the farmers the right to subtract the costs connected with some works in
agriculture and cattle breeding from the tax paid. Work on soil preservation,
water resources protection, soil preparation for farming are of thus kind. The
tax discount works for the incomes and losses suffered by the farmers in
connection with the sale of cattle or forages. These losses are subtracted from
the farmer’s charges and the more favorable taxation mode is used for profit,
than for income taxation. The farmers, who are engaged in cattle feeding use a
tax privilege as a delay of income getting, that is all expenses are estimated
per one year, and all incomes on his(its) realization the next year. Besides
the farmers have the right to apply methods of accelerated amortization of
agricultural machines and equipment on higher rates. It allows them to
considerably reduce the sizes of the taxed income, that is to pay the taxes on
the lower rates. As a result, the more machines, equipment, the farmer gets,
the less taxes he pays this year and in the following period of amortization.
The farmers are given alternative to use new amortization rules to reduce the
taxed income or to make allocation by equal shares for 3-45 years depending on
the kind of property.tax rules for corporations limit the sizes of the allowed
allocation from the taxed income connected with expenses for fodder, seeds and
fertilizer. The farmer corporation can receive the right for discounts only
after actual complete consumption of materials.special tax privileges are given
to farmer cooperative societies. Thus, fruit growing cooperative societies?
marketing, and also those purchasing farm machines are released from surtax payment.of
major functions of tax privileges in agriculture is to stimulate scientific and
technical development, accelerate realization of technical novelties, which, as
a rule, require large additional capital investments. To stimulate investments
of the farmer capital in technical innovations the special conditions of the
taxation are provided these tax laws:

• Establishment of the tax
discounts on the investments gain;
• Budget compensation for tax payments on investment gain;
• Prolongation of tax payments and capital investment gain for the period of
end of investment process completion.

Farmer has the right to take advantage of one of the
favorable taxation terms, if he introduce innovations, which are found in the
state or regional agrarian programs. The farmers participating in the state
agrarian programs, have the right to detain tax payment capital investments
gain as long as the investment process is completed. The tax volume decreases
by inflation, and the sum of the tax is distributed per years in regular
intervals.state tax regulation in the USA enables the farmers of the advanced
countries to change the size tax volume at the expense of use of various tax
privileges and discounts. The numerous tax privileges reduce fiscal functions
of taxation system in agrarian sector to a minimum level.main role in belongs
to the agrarian legislation. The acts determine the basic forms and methods of
state influence on an agriculture. In recent years the role of budget
assignments for support of the prices on agricultural production and incomes of
the farmers, as well for regulation of market structure of agricultural
production and foodstuffs has increased. Organization of Economic Assistance to
Development (ОEAD) estimates that the
USA farmers received 22 milliards dollars for financial support.feature of
financing of USA economy, is that the means from the federal budget are primary
allocated for the target programs having national importance. So, two programs
work in agroindustrial complex at the federal level: “Stabilization of the
Incomes” and “science and scientific service”. Besides more than
10 interbranch target programs of national importance providing interests of an
agriculture and farmers work at a federal level. There are soil conservation
and land withdrawal program, food help to needy population, marketing and
inspection, social development of rural areas. The budget means distributed
according with this programs are summarized and allocated to the branch federal
budget of the USA agriculture. Its basic part (more than 80 %) is supervised by
the US Ministry of an agriculture through good-credit corporation (GCC) and
other financial-credit bodies. The rest of 20 % of means are distributed
through state and local management bodies. Of all US budget charges about 60 %
is necessary for realization of farmer income stabilization program and social
– charitable support of needy farmers, almost 10 % is distributed for the
programs development village at the state and regional level, about 5 % – for
scientific researches and scientific service, 25 % – for social and
native-protective purposes. Thus, 3/4 of budget assignments allocated to US
agriculture are spent for farm production regulation and 1/4 for social
purposes.system of federal budget distribution allow to regulate farm
production, through the prices, loans, credits and grants. The target program
“Stabilization Of the Incomes ” is subdivided into 3 large programs:
” Prices and Incomes Support Crop Insurance . The Farm Credit the direct gratuitous
payments from the federal budget are very important and have great influence
over the farmers. The grants are powerful economic stimulus of involving
farmers in realization of the state programs of farm regulation. The farmers,
who carry out the taken obligations on realization of the state agrarian
programs have right to get them, as well as loans. The grants use stimulates
farmers to intensify farm production in case the sowing areas are reduced
permanent income even due to the system of compensatory payments from the
federal budget farmers are ensured in permanent income even if the situation is
not favorable.US agricultural policies provide minimal and steady prices for
agricultural products. The price support frequently results in huge surpluses
of agricultural products, which authorities are compelled to buy and to keep
prices from sharp fall. Agricultural price support, alongside with other
policies inducing farmers to keep their land idle have also brought contributed
in the prices paid by the American consumers to subsidize the farmers.American
government agricultural policy supporting crop prices and farmers incomes has
resulted in federal costs of more than 85 billions dollars in 1981-86 years.
There is a complex of price support policies used by the government to benefit
agricultural firms. The simplest of the programs is a price floor similar to
the one discussed above for wages. Such a program has been used for many years
to bolster the incomes of dairy farmers However, the impact of this type of
price floor is somewhat different from the minimum wage program discussed
above. In the case of an effective minimum wage the surplus of workers seeking
work are not employed. However, in the case of an effective price floor
established for dairy products such as milk, the government actually purchases
the surplus and in that way uses taxpayers money to help increase the income of
mill: producers When the price floor is above the equilibrium price of milk
consumers also foot the bill to assist dairy farmers by paying higher prices
for milk. Because milk is not storable for long periods, the surplus milk is
usually converted to powder, cheese, or butter before being stored. In recent
years government purchases of surplus milk have amounted to about 10% of total
production. During the early 1980s the federal government spent over $2 billion
annually to purchase surplus milk. To help reduce the program in 1986 the
government purchased dairy herds of farmers who agreed to stay out of the milk
business for 5 years The dairy cows purchased through this program were then
slaughtered The price support floors for milk were also reduced in 1986.
However, the new program is not expected to eliminate the surplus.federal
government also intervenes in the market for other agricultural commodities in
various ways. The method most recently used to support the incomes of grain
producers has been the imposition of target prices for crops. Target prices are
price floors 10 sellers However unlike the price supports discussed above for milk
target prices do not directly increase the market price paid by buyers.
Instead, the entire quantity supplied by farmers at the target price is dumped
on the market. The resulting price depends on the demand for the commodity.
Farmers are then subsidized by the government through a payment for each bushel
sold equal to the difference between the target price and the price paid by
buyers .the beginning of each crop year the US Department of Agriculture
announces the target prices for various crops and the eligibility requirements
to participate the target price program. For example, in 1987 the target price
for wheat was $4,38 per bushel Typically, farmers are required to hold a
certain percentage of the their acreage land to be eligible for the target price.
In 1987 farmers had to hold idle 25% of their land to gain the right to the
target price.government does not buy grain surplus, on the target price instead
all produced graine amount is offered for sale at the market.are clearly better
under the target price program than they would be under a price floor of $4.38
per bushel. In fact, one of the justifications of the target price program in
recent years has been that it does contribute to lower prices for U.S. crops,
thereby increasing the ability of U.S. producers to compete with foreign
competitors in international commodity markets. However, because of the acreage
restrictions that go along with the program, prices can be higher than would be
the case.farmers in this way therefore transfers income from taxpayers in
general to farmers, but it does not necessarily result in lower commodity
prices to consumers compared to those that would prevail in a free market The
United States Is not the only nation that subsidizes farmers in ways that
increase quantities supplied. Other nations have their own subsidy programs
that tend to raise prices received by their farmers above the equilibrium
level. The result of these programs has in recent years has been a glut of
grain on international markets, sharply reducing prices. Farmers in nations
without subsidy programs have suffered. For example, in Canada where farm
subsidies are below those in other nations, many farmers have been forced out
of business.are also other examples. The policy of encouragement of the domestic
manufacturers of sugar in the advanced countries damages to a number of the
developing countries, whose climate is best suited for sugar production. The
surplus of sugar in the advanced countries because of price thresholds on
surpluses causes the sugar exports from these countries. And it means, that the
developing countries should compete with them at the world markets. Thus policy
of support of sugar manufacturers in the advanced countries results in decrease
of the producers incomes in the less advanced countries. The same situation
develops with other branches of agroindustrial manufacture. The support of the
prices on rice in the USA damages to the rice producers in Thailand. The
creation of favorable conditions for the manufacturers of cotton in USA results
in decrease of the incomes in Egypt and Mexico. experience of state regulation
of agroindustrial manufacture in market economy of USA shows, that the state is
an effective mechanism of modern economy. The activity of the state depends on
the development of the market, its infrastructure, degree of involving of
national economy in the international relations. An effective utilization in
USA of such tools as: the competition, tax system, budget and credit system,
frequently even to the detriment of other countries – promotes development of
market economy in the country, induces development of domestic branches of the
national economy and at the end increases competitiveness of production of
domestic manufacture in the world market.

Export import industry economy USA

CONCLUSION

The American economy is described as a free enterprise
system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with
minimum government regulation. The theoretical foundation of the American
economic system was provided by Adam Smith whose economic ideas of so called
“laissez-faireї” or free competition
influenced the development of capitalism. From his standpoint the more people
manufacture and trade the greater the competition. Competition benefits society
by allowing the consumer to search for the best available product at the lowest
price. Thus market forces, which Smith termed the invisible hands, control the
allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking for his own
self-interest. Throughout the nineteen century market operated with a minimum
government regulations. Since the 1930-s American capitalism has undergone a
radical change. Although private enterprises flourishes, government regulation
now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor
conditions. Political conservatives complain of too much government regulation
while the liberals are out for the enhance of government role in business and
economy. The country’s reliance on private initiative and enterprise has
produced imdivssive growth. It is the most affluent nation in the world.60% of
all families and individuals are in the middle-income or high-income rank.is
common knowledge that the USA is the leading economic power. This fact can be
confirmed. The status of the dollar as the world’s chief international
currency. The dollar until recently(until the time of emission of the EURO) is
used for most international trading. But the divsent times dollar shares with
the EURO its status of the international currency which points to the declining
of the US economic power. However high volatility of the American dollar
continue to create instability on the world-wide trade markets. The balance of
trade. As I said before The USA has experienced massive trade deficit. This
trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world; other countries
were able to sell more of their products to the United States, and these sales
have provided them with export benefits. While the U. S. trade deficit has
benefited foreign economies, it has created severe distress for the American
economy. a leading producer and exporter of technology the USA contributes to
the worldwide economic growth. It exports more machinery and invests more money
in technological research than any other country. Foreign investment. American
businesses and industries operate all over the world. American investment
boosts of other economies by providing them employment, technology and new
products.

THE LIST OF LITERATURE

1.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_the_USA Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

.http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Economy-of-the-US Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

.http://www.ypc.am/Old/russian/collegues/pressclub/01.1998/16-20.html Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

. http://angl.by.ru/usa/nal.htm
Дата доступа 20.04.2014

5. http:// EncyclopediaoftheNations » Americas »
UnitedStates Дата доступа 20.04.2014

6.http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki
Дата доступа 20.04.2014

.http://www.ref.by/refs/105/1827/1.html. Дата доступа 20.04.2014

.http://nehudlit.ru/books/detail7757.html, дата доступа 20.04.2014

.http://www.encyclopedia.com/topicUSAs.aspx Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

10.Encyclopedia of the Nations
http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/TheUSA-ECONOMIC-SECTORS.html
Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

.trading economics
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/us/imports Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

12.http://www.tophorticulture.com/ Дата доступа: 20.04.2014

Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

Высшего профессионального образования

«Волгоградский государственный технический университет»

Камышинский технологический институт (филиал)

Волгоградского государственного технического университета

Кафедра «английского языка»

Реферат

По дисциплине: «Английский язык»

На тему:

The USA economy

Выполнил: Проверила:

Студент гр. КМЕН-051(в) Сорокина Т.В.

Ермаков М.М.

Камышин 2006

CONTENT

1. The basis of the US economy.

2. Major industries.

3. Agriculture.

4. Foreign trade.

5. Trade wars.

6. Global economic influence.

1. The basis of the US economy

The American economy is described as a free enterprise system, which allows private business the freedom to operate for profit with minimum government regulation. The theoretical foundation of the American economic system was provided by Adam Smith whose economic ideas of so called «laissez-faireї» or free competition influenced the development of capitalism. From his standpoint the more people manufacture and trade the greater the competition. Competition benefits society by allowing the consumer to search for the best available product at the lowest price. Thus market forces, which Smith termed the invisible hands, control the allocation of goods while each participant in the market is seeking for his own self-interest.

Throughout the nineteen century market operated with a minimum government regulations. Since the 1930-s American capitalism has undergone a radical change. Although private enterprises flourishes, government regulation now exists in many areas of business ranging from product safety to labor conditions. Political conservatives complain of too much government regulation while the liberals are out for the enhance of government role in business and economy.

The country’s reliance on private initiative and enterprise has produced impressive growth. The USA today is a leading economic power with a high standard of living and enormous productivity in industry and agriculture.

It is the most affluent nation in the world.60% of all families and individuals are in the middle-income or high-income rank.

2. Major industries

The USA remains the world’s leading producer of goods and services, although its margin of superiority is diminishing as other countries become more competitive in the world’s market.

Industrial and technological position of the states is very high. The USA is the leading producer of electrical energy, aluminum, copper, sylph and paper, and one of the top producers of natural gas and automobiles. No other nation exports as much high technology as the USA.

3. Agriculture

Technological advancement has accelerated changes in American agriculture. Farming is highly mechanized and commercialized, but at the same time it requires much investment. In productive terms the achievements of this sector of the economy are extraordinary. U. S. farmers produce enough food for domestic consumption and still supply 15% of the world’s food need.

It should be noted that in the past 30 years agricultural lands have been concentrated in fewer and fewer hands as a result of the fact that large-scale specialized farms replaces small family farms.

However high efficiency and productivity of American agriculture has its negative side. On the one hand farming has become too productive to be profitable to many American farmers. Low crop prices, which have resulted from overproduction, often do not bring farmers enough income to live on. Another difficulty an American farmer faces is the decline of agricultural exports. The situation nowadays is that the share of the U. S. crops on the world’s market is shrinking while the shares of the European community expand.

4. Foreign trade

Besides agricultural products the most part of the U. S. export occupy machinery, automotive products, aircraft and chemicals. The leading U. S. imports are petroleum products, food and beverages machinery, iron and steel products. The USA is the world’s largest importer and exporter. Despite its huge domestic production, the economy of America depends heavily on foreign imports. Until recently the US exported more goods than it imported. However the present situation is the declining competitiveness of American goods in the world market first of all due to poor quality, which was indicated by the trade deficit, which is called in economic theory a negative balance of foreign trade. Foreign manufacturers are now selling about 50% inside the country more than Americans are exporting abroad.

It should be specially emphasized that the condition of the U. S. economy depends to a vast extent on the world-wide oil prices. If they are at a low-rate American economy prospers, otherwise it is in a decline. This phenomenon can seem the reason for the economic crisis of the USA nowadays. That is why America has an urge to control the oil field in Iraq which will give it an opportunity to control also over the world one. In fact the predictable war in Iraq is only one aspect of its policy, aimed to retention its specific role in international economics. In this case the economic interests of the USA coincide with its political ones.

5. Trade wars

During somewhere a decade the USA was taking part in so called trade wars. A trade war is the usage of export and import towards the pressure on the trade partners. One country considers the other one to buy not enough its production and demands for more. Otherwise it promises to limit the import from this country. It seems to be a premise for the beginning of a trade war.

At the end of 90-s the USA took part in several trade wars at one time: the meat war, the banana war, the grain war and the tax war. For instance in 1999 the USA blamed Russia for selling the steel for the dumping price in the American market. The U. S. president Bush has recently imposed restrictions and the taxes on the import of steel from Russia. As a respond to such sanction Russia from its side imposed embargo on importing hens from the USA known all over the world as the «Bush’s hensї» due to their genetic modification. This war has not finished yet.

6. Global economic influence

It is common knowledge that the USA is the leading economic power. This fact can be confirmed. The status of the dollar as the world’s chief international currency. The dollar until recently(until the time of emission of the EURO) is used for most international trading. But the present times dollar shares with the EURO its status of the international currency which points to the declining of the US economic power. However high volatility of the American dollar continue to create instability on the world-wide trade markets.

The balance of trade. As I said before The USA has experienced massive trade deficit. This trade imbalance has promoted growth in the rest of the world; other countries were able to sell more of their products to the United States, and these sales have provided them with export benefits. While the U. S. trade deficit has benefited foreign economies, it has created severe distress for the American economy.

As a leading producer and exporter of technology the USA contributes to the worldwide economic growth. It exports more machinery and invests more money in technological research than any other country.

Foreign investment. American businesses and industries operate all over the world. American investment boosts of other economies by providing them employment, technology and new products.

Перевод

1. Основание американской экономики

Американская экономика описана как свободная система предприятия, которая позволяет частному бизнесу свободно работать за прибыль с минимальным правительственным регулированием. Теоретический основа американской экономической системы была обеспечена Адамом Смитом, экономические идеи которого относительно так называемого «Лайзес-фареи» или свободного соревнования влияли на развитие капитализма. С его точки зрения больше людей производит и торгует при большей конкуренция. Конкуренция приносит пользу обществу, разрешая потребителю искать лучшее из доступного изделия по самой низкой цене. Таким образом рыночные силы, которые Смит назвал невидимой рукой, управляют распределением товаров, в то время как каждый участник на рынке ищет его собственный, личный интерес.

Рынок девятнадцатого столетия использовал минимум правительственного регулирования. С тех пор как Американский капитализм 1930-ых подвергся радикальной перемене. Хотя частные предприятия расцвели, правительственное регулирование теперь существует во многих областях бизнеса в пределах от безопасности изделия до условий труда. Политические консерваторы жалуются на слишком большое количество правительственного регулирования, в то время как либералы за прекращение увеличения правительственной роли в бизнесе и экономике.

Уверенность страны относительно частной инициативы и предприятия произвела внушительный рост. США сегодня — ведущая экономическая держава с высоким уровнем жизни и огромной производительностью в промышленности и сельском хозяйстве.

Это — самая богатая нация в мире.60% всех семейств и индивидуумов находятся в разряде среднего дохода или разряде высокого дохода.

2. Главные отрасли промышленности

США остаются всемирным ведущим производителем товаров и услуг, хотя его превосходство уменьшается, поскольку другие страны становятся более конкурентоспособными на всемирном рынке.

Индустриальное и технологическое положение штатов очень высоко. США — ведущий производитель электрической энергии, алюминия, меди, серы и бумаги, и один из главных производителей природного газа и автомобилей. Никакая другая нация не экспортирует так много высокой технологии как США.

3. Сельское хозяйство

Технологический прогресс ускорил изменения в американском сельском хозяйстве. Сельское хозяйство высоко механизировано и коммерциализировано, но в то же самое время это требует большого количества инвестиций. В производительных сроках достижения этого сектора экономики экстраординарны. Американские фермеры производят достаточно продовольствия для внутреннего потребления и все еще снабжают 15% всемирной потребности в продовольствии.

Необходимо отметить, что за прошлые 30 лет сельскохозяйственные страны были сконцентрированы меньше и меньшем количестве рук в результате того факта, что крупномасштабные специализированные фермы заменяют маленькие фермы семейства.

Однако высокая эффективность и производительность американского сельского хозяйства имеет и отрицательную сторону. С одной стороны сельское хозяйство стало слишком производительным, чтобы быть выгодным многим американским фермерам. Значимое снижение цен, которые являются результатом перепроизводства, часто не приносят фермерам достаточно дохода, чтобы жить. Другая трудность, с которой американский фермер сталкивается — снижение сельскохозяйственного экспорта. Ситуация в настоящее время состоит в том, что доля американских зерновых культур на всемирном рынке сжимается, в то время как акции Европейского Экономического Сообщества расширяются.

4. Внешняя торговля

Помимо сельскохозяйственных изделий большую часть американского экспорта занимает машины, автомобильные изделия, самолеты и химикалии. Ведущий американский импорт — нефтепродукты, продовольствие и напитки, железных и стальных изделий. США — самый большой в мире импортер и экспортер. Несмотря на ее масштабное внутреннее производство, экономика Америки сильно зависит от иностранного импорта. До недавнего времени США экспортировали больше товаров чем импортировало. Однако в существующей ситуации — снижающаяся конкурентоспособность американских товаров на мировом рынке прежде всего из-за низкого качества, которое было обозначено торговым дефицитом, который называют в экономической теории отрицательным балансом внешней торговли. Иностранные изготовители теперь продают приблизительно 50% в стране больше, чем Американцы экспортируют за границу.

Необходимо особенно подчеркнуть, что состояние американской экономики в значительной степени отражается на международных ценах на нефть. Если они ниже нормы, американская экономика процветает, иначе начинает снижаться. Это явление может явится причиной экономического кризиса США в настоящее время. Именно поэтому Америка имеет целью управлять месторождением нефти в Ираке, что даст ей возможность контролировать этот рынок одним. Фактически предсказуемая война в Ираке — только один аспект этой политики, нацеленной к содержании его специфической роли в международной экономике. В этом случае экономические интересы США совпадают с его политическими.

5. Торговые войны

Примерно в течение десятилетия США принимали участие в так называемых торговых войнах. Торговая война — использование экспорта и импорта к давлению на торговых партнеров. Одна страна полагает, что другая покупает недостаточно её продукции и требования увеличиваются. Иначе это ведет к ограничению импорта от этой страны. Вероятно это и есть предпосылка для начала торговой войны.

В конце 90-ых США приняли участие в нескольких торговых войнах одновременно: война мяса, банановая война, война зерна и налоговая война. Например в 1999 США обвиняли Россию в продать сталь за демпинговую цену на американском рынке. Американский президент Буш недавно наложил ограничения и налоги на импорт стали из России. Как ответила на такую санкцию Россия – наложением с ее стороны эмбарго на импортирование куриц из США, известных во всем мире как ножки «Буша» из-за их генетической модификации. Эта война все же не закончилась.

6. Глобальное экономическое влияние

Это — общепринятая истина, что США — ведущая экономическая держава. Этот факт может быть подтвержден. Статус доллара определяется как всемирная главная международная валюта. Доллар до недавнего времени (во время выпуска ЕВРО) использовался в большинстве международных торговых операциях. Но доллар в настоящие время разделяет с ЕВРО статус международной валюты, что указывает на снижение американской экономической мощи. Однако высокая изменчивость американского доллара продолжает создавать неустойчивость на международных торговых рынках.

Торговый баланс. Как я сказал прежде США испытали масштабный торговый дефицит. Эта торговая неустойчивость стала расти в остальной части мира; другие страны были способны продать больше их изделий Соединенным Штатам, и эти продажи объяснялись их экспортными выгодами. В то время как американский торговый дефицит принес пользу иностранным экономикам, это создало серьезное бедствие для американской экономики.

Как ведущий производитель и экспортер технологии, США внесло вклад во всемирный экономический рост. Они экспортирует больше машин и инвестирует больше денег в технологическое исследование, чем любая другая страна.

Иностранные инвестиции. Американские виды коммерческой деятельности и отрасли промышленности работают во всем мире. Американские инвестиции повышают из других экономик на если их занятость, технологии и новые изделия.

Vocabulary

able — способный

accelerated — ускоренный

achievements — достижения

advancement — продвижение

affluent — приток

aimed — нацеленный

aircraft — самолет

allocation — распределение

allowing — позволение

although — хотя

aspect — аспект

automotive products – автомобильные изделия

available — доступный

bananawar – банановая война

benefits — выгоды

beverages — напитки

blamed — обвиненный

bring — принести

bush’shensї – ножки буша

chief — руководитель

coincide — совпасть

commercialized — коммерциализированный

competitiveness — конкурентоспособность

complain — жалуйтесь

confirmed — подтвержденный

considers — рассматривает

consumer — потребитель

consumption — потребление

contributes – вносить вклад

copper — медь

create — создать

crops – зерновые культуры

currency — валюта

decade — десятилетие

decline — снижение

demands — требования

despite – несмотря на

development — развитие

difficulty — трудность

diminishing — уменьшение

distress — бедствие

domestic — внутренний

due — должный

dumping — демпинг

during – в течение

efficiency — эффективность

embargo — эмбарго

emission — эмиссия

emphasized — подчеркнутый

employment — занятость

enhance — увеличить

enterprise — предприятие

exists — существует

expand — расширяться

experienced — опытный

exportingabroad – экспорт за границей

extent — степень

extraordinary — экстраординарный

fewer — меньше

flourishes — расцветы

foreign — иностранный

foreigntrade – внешняя торговля

foundation — фонд

genetic — генетический

grainwar – зерновая война

growth — рост

handї control – куриный контроль

heavily — тяжело

hens — курицы

high-incomerank – разряд высокого-дохода

huge — огромный

imposed — наложенный

impressive — внушительный

income — доход

indicated — обозначенный

influence — влияние

international currency – международная валюта

investment — инвестиции

investment boosts — стимулирует рост

iron — железо

lands — страны

large-scale — крупномасштабный

lowcropprices – низкие цены на урожай

lowestprice – самая низкая цена

low-rate – низкая норма

machinery — машины

margin — край

massive — массивный

meat war – война мяса

mechanized — механизированный

middle-income – среднего дохода

modification — модификация

occupy — занять

operate — работать

opportunity — возможность

otherwise — иначе

overproduction — перепроизводство

participant — участник

partners — партнеры

phenomenon — явление

policy — политика

poor — бедный

predictable — предсказуемый

premise — предпосылка

pressure — давление

private — частный

productivity — производитель

profit — прибыль

profitable — выгодный

promoted — подвинутый

prospers — процветает

quality — качество

ranging — расположение

reason — причина

recently — недавно

relianceinitiative – инициатива уверенности

remains — остается

replaces — заменяет

requires — требует

research — исследование

respond — ответить

restrictions — ограничения

retention — задержание

safetyconservatives – безопасные консерваторы

search — поиск

sector — сектор

selling — продажа

services — услуги

shares — доли

shrinking — сокращение

standpoint – точка зрения

steel — сталь

sulphur — сера

superiority — превосходство

supply — поставка

termed — названный

thus – таким образом

top — вершина

tradewars – торговые войны

undergone — подвергся

until — до

urge — убеждение

usage — использование

volatility — котировка

worldwide — во всем мире

world-wide – по всему миру

yet – все же

Скачай Экономика США (дисциплина – английский язык) реферат по иностранным языкам на английском языке и еще Сочинения в формате PDF Английский язык только на Docsity! Министерство образования Российской Федерации Уральский государственный экономический университет Кафедра иностранных языков РЕФЕРАТ по дисциплине «английский язык» ЭКОНОМИКА США Выполнил: студент гр. ОП-04 Меденников И.В. Проверил: преподаватель Петрова О.В. Екатеринбург 2005 1. Freedom From Internal Control: 5.0 The United States government allows its citizens to be free from internal control. Citizens are allowed to take part in any action that they wish to involve themselves in as long as it is not an illegal action. The government encourages and provides its citizens freedom in order to create maximum opportunity and wealth creation for the entire nation. Source: Personal 2. Freedom of Speech: 4.0 In Amendment I of the Bill of Rights, the United States government gives individuals the right of freedom of speech and prohibits the government to abridge the freedom to exercise this right. The ability of the United States citizens to express themselves freely without restriction allows entrepreneurs to have maximum opportunities which creates economic wealth. However, there are restrictions on speech, ratings on movies, parental advisories on music, and other forms of entertainment. These restrictions do in some way restrict free speech. Source: Personal 3. Effective, Fair Police Force: 2.0 The police forces of the United States protect its citizens from crime and criminals quite effectively. However, the fairness of the police force on minorities is in constant question. The police forces use of racial profiling and questionable shootings of Hispanics and African Americans causes minorities to be fearful of their encounters with the police force. These types of racism and unequal treatment discourage the creation of businesses run by minorities which decreases wealth. Source: Personal 4. Currency: 5.0 The United States dollar is the single currency used in the United States. The dollar is the only official currency used within the United States. The use of this helps to encourage commerce and creates economic opportunities wealth. Source: Personal 5. Commercial Banks: 4.0 The commercial banks of the United States both lend money to enterprises and the majority of citizens’ place their cash deposits within the banks. This encourages economic opportunity and the creation of wealth. The majority of commercial banks financing are for enterprises. However, banks also involve themselves in non-business financing, although this is limited. Source: Personal 6. Communication Systems: 5.0 The United States has numerous communication facilities. In 1998, the United States had 575 million radios, 219 million televisions, 178 million telephone lines, 55.312 million cell phones, and 7600 internet service providers. Along with all of these the United States has extensive numbers of magazines and newspapers. The ability to communicate and express new ideas through all these types of systems is critical to the creation of wealth within the United States economy. Source: 1998 CIA World Fact Book, http://www.abcnews.go.com/ reference/countries/US.html, 19 March 2001 States schools are successful and maintain stability. While law enforcement has some controversies, it remains a stable institution. While not all businesses are totally stable, the majorities of them remain and are strong. Source: Personal 16. Honest Government: 4.0 The individuals who govern and take part in the United States government, express their deep-rooted desire to help the American people and the community. While most politicians do perform actions that help the American people and eliminate corruption within the government, controversies do occur. Scandals such as Whitewater and Watergate have hurt the reputation of American government leaders. However, scandals are not the norm in the actions of all government officials. Many of the American leaders work with the community and other leaders to eliminate corruption within the government. Source: Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 17. Common Laws: 4.0 The United States government has a competent set of laws and justice system. The United States also has competent local law standards that serve to guide individuals. The Constitution and other laws serve to effectively enforce upon American citizens. If individuals feel that laws are unconstitutional or their rights were not enforced fairly by either a regular court or law enforcement, individuals have the right to appeal their case to either the United States Supreme Court or the Supreme Court of the state that they were tried in. These options allow the legal system to be fair equally throughout the nation. Source: Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 18. Central Bank: 4.0 The central bank of the United States is the Federal Reserve Bank. The federal reserve serves four main functions: to conduct the nation’s monetary policy, to maintain the stability of the financial system, to supervise and regulate banking institutions, and to provide services to the government, public, and other institutions. Alan Greenspan, the head of the Federal Reserve Bank, has helped to prove the dollar stability and help to regulate United States economic institutions. The Federal Reserve Bank effectively regulates the United States banks and monetary policy. It assures the stability of the financial system in the United States. Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, http:// www.federalreserve.gov, 11 April 2001 19. Domestic Budget Management: 5.0 The United States effectively manages and balances its domestic budget. In 2000, the United States government proposed expenditures of $1,868 billion and tax revenues of $1,987 billion. In a balanced budget, the tax revenue minus the expenditures should not be negative. In 2000, the government had a positive number of a surplus of $119 billion. This shows an effective management of the budget by the United States. Source: Michael Parkin, Economics, 2000 20. Government Debt: 2.0 In 2000, the United States government debt totaled about 40 percent of the gross domestic product. The debt is not a very low percentage of the United States gross domestic product. While the government debt continues to fall to lower levels in the past few years, it has not reached a low enough level at which it will lesser negative effect on the economy. Source: Michael Parkin, Economics, 2000 21. Private Property: 4.0 The local courts and local governments in the United States protect the rights of private property and its citizens. Most of these local laws protect both real and personal property of the United States citizens. The United States also protects artists and writers and all other intellectual property by copyright laws. Users of intellectual property must cite or pay the original property owner for their usage. The establishment and upholding of property is consistent within the United States. Source: Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 22. Economic Statistics: 4.0 Economic statistics within the United States are numerous and for the most part accurate. The United States publishes and releases economic statistics to the public and to businesses. These statistics encourage public investment into the economy. While some of the United States economic statistics are not as accurate as they should be, the federal government and other sound economic statistics agencies release accurate statistics contributing to public economic awareness. Source: United States Federal Government, http://www.whitehouse.gov/ fsbr/text/esbr.html, 10 April 2001 23. Protection of Public Heath and Safety: 5.0 (note: this is pre-Bush administration) The United States government sets regulations on child-safety standards, nursing home care standards, ensures job safety standards, provides working sewer systems, clean water standards, requires government inspection of food standards in restaurants, and requires food labeling to compare nutritional standards. Between 1995-2000, the United States received a 7 infant mortality rate; the best score provided by the United Nations was a 4. These health statistics and indicators reveal a good management of the health of the American people. Source: Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 Population Division of the UN Secretariat, http://www.un.org, 11 April 2001 24. High Wage Policies: 2.0 The United States enforces regulation that allows workers with the lowest paying jobs to be paid a minimum wage in which no worker will receive a lesser amount. As the cost of living and value of the dollar have changed, the United States has increased the minimum wage. While this is positive, the majority of American workers are poor. The wealth and wage distribution of the American people is extremely spread out. A small number receive the majority of the wages, while the majority receives minimal wages. While many Americans can afford buying goods beyond the bare necessities, there are also many that cannot. Source: Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 25. Environmental Protection: 4.0 (note: this is pre-Bush administration) The Environmental Protection Agency in the United States has helped to maintain and encourage political leaders to protect and enforce environmental protection regulations. In 1990, the Clean Air Act was passed. This allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to set limits on pollutants released into the air within the United States. The United States also passed the Clean Water and Safe Drinking Water Acts. Both of these acts started regulation of pollutants released into United States water and authorized technological standards to reduce such pollution. Along with these acts the Omnibus Parks and Public Lands Management Act, encouraged the preservation of forests and parks. The regulation by the United States to protect its resources has been extremely effective. Although all of the regulation is positive, the United States is still one of the world’s biggest polluters. Source: Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/ peg_caa/pegcaa02.html, 11 April 2001 Karen O’Connor, American Government: Continuity and Change, 1999 26. Strong Army: 5.0 The United States has one of the world’s strongest military powers. It maintains consistent effort to keep ready armed forces and modernize the forces with new technological advances to protect against potential threats. In 1997, spending on this military defense was 3.4% of the United States gross domestic product. During 1997, the gross domestic product of the United States totaled $8.1 trillion. The number derived from 3.4% of $8.1 trillion is below one third of the United States domestic budget of $1.6 trillion. The United States armed forces are vital and play a positive role in the economy. Kingdom. The NATO alliance has a commitment within the member countries stating that when one member is attacked, the attack is considered an attack against all of the countries. However, the alliance is more effective for the smaller countries than it is for the United States. The favorable alliance is important for trade between the United States and member countries. The other countries can be assured that the United States will help them, however, the benefit is not as extensive within the domestic security of the United States. Source: NATO, http://www.nato.int/, 22 February 2001 U.S. Secretary of Defense, http://www.dtic.mil/execsec/adr2000/adr2000.pdf, 7 March 2001 34. Protection of domestic enterprises from government mandated costs: 2.0 The United States imposes a number of costs on domestic enterprises that other countries do not impose. The main source of this is OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). OSHA makes target inspections and routinely enforces fines within high hazard work places. During the year 2000, the fines imposed by federal inspections, as a result of OSHA, totaled $86,498,127. OSHA also imposed state inspections and those violations totaled $68,600,621. A willful violation of OSHA terms can lead to a fine between $5,000 to $70,000. Serious violations can lead to fines up to $7,000. Repeated fines, like willful fines, can lead to fines up to $70,000. Failures to correct OSHA violation range up to $7,000 per day until the problems are fixed. Minor violations can lead up to fines of $7,000. All of these costs are not uniformly imposed on other international enterprises. Costs such as these are interfering with the productivity and profit of domestic enterprises. However, during Bill Clinton’s presidency, he tried to make other countries adhere to minimum labor and environmental standards. He helped to work with the International Labor Organization and NAFTA, so that American companies would not have as much difficulty competing with less regulated countries. Source: OSHA, http://www.osha.gov/as/opa/oshafacts.html, 22 February 2001 United States Government, http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/ oecon/chap10.htm, 19 March 2001 DISCLAIMER All the information and conclusions in each country analysis are solely the responsibility of the individual student and have not been verified, corrected, checked for copyright infringement or evaluated in any way by MIEPA or Mike P. McKeever. You are solely responsible for the results of any use you make of the information and conclusions in these studies. Use them at your own risk as interesting supplemental information only instead of seasoned judgements about the policy factors contained herein. Each student has granted permission for his or her work to be displayed here under his or her own name or wishes to remain anonymous and have either created a pen name or used no name at all; if you wish to contact them for any reason, forward your request to MIEPA and the student will be notified of your interest.

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Economy of the USA (Экономика(экономия) США)

Economy of the USA
The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly developed in the States.
Each region of the United States has characteris¬tics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.  
Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersy are biggest industrial regions of the country.
The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zink. The south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines.
Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming re¬gion of America and it is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here.
There is a lot of fruit raising area. For example, California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many oth¬ers.
There are a lot of large and modern cities, but a great proportion of the country consists of open land dotted with farmhouses and small towns. The usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its Mam Street with the same types of stores selling the same products. Many American residential areas tend to have a similar look. As to big cities their centres or downtowns look very much alike. Down¬town is the cluster of skyscrapers immitations of New York giants.
New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is more than eight million peo¬ple. It is a financial and advertising business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River .^In¬dustry of consumer goods is also developed here.
Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the second largest city in the USA3t deals in wheat and other grains, cattle meat processing and manufacturing. Other big cities are Huston, an oil refining and NASA space research centre, New Orleans, a cotton industry centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Phyladelphia, a shipping commercial centre, Detroit, a world’s leading motor car producer and many others.
Экономика(экономия) США
Соединенные Штаты Америки – высоко развитая промышленная страна. Судостроение, электроника, автомобильная промышленность, авиационная промышленность, космическое исследование высоко развито в Государствах.
Каждая область(регион) Соединенных Штатов имеет характеристики ее собственный из-за различий в климате, пейзаже и географическом положении(позиции). Великие озера, Атлантическое Побережье, Штат Пенсильвания, Новый Jersy – самые большие индустриальные области(регионы) страны.
Соединенные Штаты имеют много минеральных депозитов или ресурсов типа угля, золота, серебра, меди, лидерства и цинка. Юг, особенно Штат Техас богат в нефти(масле). Каменноугольные бассейны Штата Пенсильвания богаты в угле. Есть множество угольных шахт.
Штат Иллинойс, Штат Айова, Штат Небраска – самая богатая область(регион) сельского хозяйства Америки, и это известно как Пояс Зерна. Земля плодородна и хорошо увлажнилась. Они выращивают главным образом зерно и пшеницу там. Много домашнего скота также подняты здесь.
Есть много плода, поднимающего область. Например, Калифорнийские апельсины, грейпфрут, лимоны, также как другие плоды, вина и овощи отправлены на всем протяжении Государств и к другим частям мира. Наиболее важные зерновые культуры, которые вырастают в Государствах – также табак, соя, арахисы, винограды и многие другие.
Есть много больших и современных городов, но большая пропорция страны состоит из открытой земли, пунктирной с сельскими домами и маленькими городами. Обычный средний город, в любой части Соединенных Штатов, имеет ее Mam Улицу с теми же самыми типами складов(магазинов), продающих те же самые изделия. Много Американских жилых областей имеют тенденцию иметь подобный взгляд. Относительно больших городов их центры или центры города смотрят очень подобно. Центр города – группа небоскребов immitations нью-йоркских гигантов.
Нью-йоркский Город – первый самый большой город Государств. Его население – больше чем восемь миллионов человек. Это – финансовый и рекламный деловой центр. Это – также самый большой морской порт Гудзонской Реки. ^In-dustry товаров потребителя также развит здесь.
Чикаго с населением больше чем трех с половиной миллионов – второй по величине город в делах USA3T в пшенице и другом зерне, обработке мяса рогатого скота и производстве. Другие большие города – Huston, очистка нефти и центр исследования места НАСА, Новый Орлеан, хлопковый центр промышленности, Лос-Анджелес с Голливудом, Phyladelphia, отгружающимся коммерческим центром, Детройтом, всемирным ведущим моторным автомобильным производителем и многими другие.

Категория: Английский язык | Добавил: eklion (08.11.2009)

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