Great britain реферат на английском


1. The Physical Face of Great Britain
1.1 Mountains
1.2 Rivers
1.3 Climate and Weather
1.4 Mineral Wealth
2. The Present Population of the United Kingdom
2.2 Households
2.3 Family and Marriage
2.4 Religion
2.5 Health and Welfare
2.6 Employment
2.7 Transport and Transportation
2.8 Education
3. English Customs and Traditions

  The Physical Face of Great Britain

   The British Isles are situated on the continental shelf off the north-west coast of Europe and comprise a group of over 5,000 islands.
   Politically the British Isles are divided into two countries – the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or just the U. K., and the southern part of Ireland, or the Irish Republic, or Eire. The total area of the British Isles is 322,246 sq. km, whereas that of the U.K. is 244,100 sq. km, which is half the size of France. The warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift (Gulf Stream) move from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea across the Atlantic, and so reach the shores of Northwest Europe. That is why in winter the coasts are ice free and the warm air passes over the British Isles throughout the year.
   From the European continent the British Isles are separated by the English Channel and the North Sea. For centuries the British felt safe and secure protected by the Channel, and no foreign army has ever invaded the country since the Norman conquest in the 11th century.
   The advantageous geographical position of Great Britain created favourable conditions for the development of shipping, trade and economy as a whole. The British Isles in general, but especially England as part of the U.K., form one of the most densely peopled areas in the world. With the present population of the U.K. of some 60 million, many problems emerge with land use, road construction and city sprawl. No wander British pay much attention to the preservation of the environment.
   The British Isles, apart from the two largest islands of Great Britain and Ireland, include several other important islands and groups of islands. Off the north-western coast of Great Britain there is a group of islands known as the Hebrides,
which are divided into the Inner and Outer Hebrides. They are separated from each other by the sea of Hebrides and the Little Minch. The main occupation of the people there is farming and fishing.
   Off the northern coast of Scotland separated from Great Britain by the Pentland Forth are the Orkney Islands which comprise about a hundred islands. Most of the 20,000 residents are engaged in dairy and poultry farming.
   The Shetland Islands are situated about 100 km north of the Orkneys. The population is actively engaged in herring-fishing.
   In the middle of the Irish Sea lies the Isle of Man. The largest settlement is the holiday resort of Douglas.
   Another important island in the Irish Sea is Anglesey situated off the north coast of Wales. It is a place of a very famous village with the longest place name in Great Britain `Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch`[i].
   The Channel Islands lie to the south-west on the French side of the English Channel. In rural areas many of the people speak a French-Norman dialect, but the official languages are English and French. The farmers produce early fresh vegetables and new potatoes as well as flowers for urban residents. Moreover, the sheep are reputed for their high quality wool sent to the mainland.
   Living on islands, and therefore near the sea, the British naturally grew into a nation of sailors. Their love of the sea led them to become navigators and discoverers of new lands in many parts of the globe.
   The capital of the country, London, is an enormous city because of its sprawl, though in population terms (less than 7 million people), it is among the largest cities in the world. Its name is probably derived from the Celtic Llyn-dyn meaning `lake-fort`, and `dyn` meaning a `fortified place`.
[1] In English it means `St Mary`s church by the pool of the white hazel trees, near the rapid whirlpool, by the red cave of the Church of St Tysilio` (the railway timetable simply shows it as `Llanfair PG`).
The White Tower, which is the central structure of the Tower of London, was erected to the order of William the Conqueror in 1078. The oldest part of London is the `City`. Centuries ago there was a high wall around the City of London which today is the financial and business heart of the capital. London is a city of all seasons with millions of tourists visiting this famous metropolis.
Britain today is among the world leaders in tourism with about 25 million people visiting the country annually.
MOUNTAINS. The most important range of mountains is the Pennine range, regarded which form a watershed separating the westward-flowing from the eastward-flowing rivers of northern England. Rainfall in the Pennines is abundant, and today the area is used for water storage: reservoirs in the uplands supply water to the industrial towns on each side of the Pennines.
Across the north end of the Pennines there are the grassy Cheviot Hills. In north-west England lie the Cumbrian mountains. The valleys, which separate the various mountains from each other, contain some beautiful lakes (Windermere, Grasmere, Ullswater and others).
This is the famous Lake District, the favourite place of holiday-makers and tourists. It is here that the great English poets Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey lived and wrote. The mountains covering practically all the territory of Wales are called the Cambrian mountains.
  RIVERS. There is a fairly wide network of rivers in the British Isles. The mild maritime climate keeps them free of ice throughout the year. The largest river in Great Britain is the Severn (350 km) which follows a very puzzling course from central Wales and flows into the Bristol Channel. The Thames (332 km) and the Trent (274km) flow into the North Sea. Among other important rivers, which flow eastwards to the North Sea are the Ouse, Humber, Tees and Tyne in England, and the rivers Tweed, Forth, Dee and Spey in Scotland. These are the rivers flowing into the Irish Sea: the Mersey and Eden of England, and the Clyde on which Glasgow stands. The longest river in the British Isles is the river Shannon (384km) flowing from north to south in the Republic of Ireland.
   The largest lake in Great Britain and the biggest inland loch in Scotland is Loch Lomond, covering a surface of 70 sq. km, but the largest fresh water lake of the whole British Isles is Lough Neagh (381 sq. km) in Northern Ireland.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER. Weather is not the same as climate. The weather of the British Isles is greatly variable. The geographical position of the British Isles is a basic factor in determining the main characteristics of the climate. Britain`s climate is dominated by the influence of the sea. It is much milder than that in any other country in the same latitudes. This is due partly to the presence of the North Atlantic Drift, or the Gulf Stream, and partly to the presence of the north-west Europe lies in a predominantly westerly wind-belt. This means that marine influences warm the land in winter and cool in summer.
   The prevailing winds in the British Isles are westerlies.  North and north-west winds often bring heavy falls OF SNOW TO NORTH Britain during late October and November, but they are usually short-lived. Relief is the most important factor controlling the distribution of temperatures and precipitation in Britain. The average annual rainfall in Britain is about 1,100 mm. Rainfall is fairly well distributed throughout the year, although March to June are the driest months and October to January are the wettest. July and August are the warmest months of the year, and January and February the coldest.
   Although the English weather is most unreliable, the climate of the country – the average weather – is generally good. The winters are seldom very cold and the summers are seldom very hot.
  MINERAL WEALTH. The rise of Britain as an industrial nation in the late 18th and early 19th centuries was partly due to the presence of considerable mineral resources. Such resources as oil, gas, uranium ores have become essentially important in the modern world. Today the economy of the country continues to import rare metals such as manganese, chrome, nickel and others which are necessary for the industries which play a major role in the life of the country. Most coal comes today from Yorkshire and the Midlands. Oil fields are located off the eastern and northern coasts of Scotland and north-east England. Today Britain is completely self-sufficient in oil, and also to a great degree in gas. Great Britain has no large-scale resources of non-ferrous metals. Nearly all of them are imported. However, the country has a great variety of non-metallic minerals such as granites, clay, chalk, sand and gravel, different kinds of salt, kaolin and paper. Moreover, it is most positive that long-term considerations are not discarded concerning the usage of non-conventional sources of energy such as the power of the wind and the tides. Today Britain is no longer the leading industrial nation in the world. She is the fifth in terms of the size of the GDP (gross domestic product), and she is also the 5th largest trading nation in the world.

The Present Population of the United Kingdom

   The people who now inhabit the British Isles are descended mainly from the people who lived here some 9 centuries ago. The English nation was formed as a result of the amalgamation of the native population of the British Isles – the pre-Celts and the Celts with the invaders: the Germanic tribes )Angles, Saxons and Jutes), the Danes and the Normans. The latter were a branch of the Scandinavian Vikings. In 2000 the population of the UK was 59.8 million.
   According to the 2001 census, about 9 per cent of the people in Britain are non-white. London has the highest proportion of minority ethnic communities.Just a little over 50 per cent of the city`s people describe themselves as white British. A further 14 per cent are either white Irish or white other, which includes Europeans, Americans, New Zealanders, etc.
HOUSEHOLDS. The results of the 2001 census show that household numbers are falling. More than a quarter of homes in the UK are owned outright by their occupiers, while almost another four in 10 are owned with the help of a mortgage or loan. The most popular type of home in the UK is semi-detached (more than 27 per cent of all homes), closely followed by detached, then terraced. Just over a fifth of all homes are flats or bedsits. In Scotland, a third of all homes are in purpose built blocks of flats or tenements.
FAMILY AND MARRIAGE. More than four in 10 people over the age of 16 in the UK are married, while another three in 10 describe themselves as single or never married. Another 8 per cent of people are divorced, while just over 8 per cent are widowed and 7 per cent have re-married. 30 per cent of families have children. By far the highest proportion of single people – 50.1 per cent – can be found in inner London. About 60 per cent of the population live as a couple – just over 50 per cent of these are married or re-married, while almost another 10 per cent are cohabiting. Northern Ireland has the smallest number of divorcees (a result of a strong influence of the Catholic Church), while Wales has the highest. Almost one in three families have children, just over a fifth of households are lone-parents( usually a single mother).
RELIGION. Every religion in the world is represented in the United Kingdom, from Hindu and Muslim to Buddhist and Zoroastrian. While the UK is basically secular, it is also overwhelmingly Christian. There are two established churches in Britain: in England – the Anglican Church of England, and in Scotland – the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. In England proper the highest number of Christians is found in north-east England. The highest concentration of other religions is found in London. The capital has the highest proportion of the nation`s Muslims, Hindus, Jews and Buddhists. Muslims have now emerged as the second largest religion in the UK.
HEALTH AND WELFARE. Just over two thirds of the population said their general health was good, with just over one in five revealing their health was “fairly good” and almost one in 10 describing their health as “not good”. Nearly one in five people in the UK has a long-term illness, health problem or disability which limits their daily activities or the work they can do. Wales has the largest number of people with limiting long-term illnesses and the highest proportion of unpaid carers. England is the healthiest, with only 9 per cent of people describing their health as “not good”, and 17.9 per cent reporting a limiting long-term illness. Life expectancy in the UK is still very high with 84 years for women and 78 years for men.
EMPLOYMENT. Four in 10 people aged between 16 and 74 in the UK are in full time employment. Just over another one in 10 work part-time, while 8 per cent are self-employed.  Of those who do work, the largest proportion are managers and senior officials – almost 15 per cent. Just over 13 per cent of workers are in administrative and secretarial occupations, while a similar number fall into the “associate professional and technical” category, which includes jobs such as engineering technicians, nurses and artists. People with “elementary occupations”, for example mail sorters, hotel porters and traffic wardens, make up almost 12 per cent of the workforce.
TRANSPORT AND TRANSPORTATION. Without any doubt, British people love their cars. Despite years of rising controversy over traffic jams and concern for the environment, they overwhelmingly use their cars to get to and from work. Some 30 per cent of families in the UK own 2 cars. In England, almost half of homes own one car. A quarter own two vehicles. Approximately 1 per cent of homes own four or more cars.The patterns are almost identical in Wales and Northern Ireland, including the number of households which don`t use a car – just over a quarter. In Scotland, there is a higher proportion of households without cars and almost exactly the same number of households with one car. The exeption to all of this is London. A majority of London homes do not own a car. This is by no means suggests it is because they are poorer. London has dramatically higher levels of use of public transport as more people choose to avoid driving in the capital`s near-constant traffic jams and where access to the centre is strictly limited and parking is almost impossible!
EDUCATION. The legal basis of the educational system in the UK until 1988 was the educational act of 1944. It prescribed the duty of government, LEAs and parents in a system which is still compulsory for those aged 5 to 16. Nursery education is provided in nursery schools, day nurseries and pre-school playgrounds for children from 2 to 5.
Most children start school at the age of 5 in a primary school and go on it till 11-12. A primary school may be divided into two departments – infants (5-7) and juniors (7-12). In infant schools children are engaged in playing activities while in junior schools children have set periods of arithmetic, reading and composition. They are graded.
There is usually a move from primary to secondary school at the age of 11. Until 1960s there existed the tripartite system of secondary schools. But for years it was under assault. In early 70s by the Labour government the 11+ exams were abolished and most secondary schools were organized on comprehensive lines. Comprehensive schools admit children without reference to ability or aptitude. They provide courses that focus on practical skills considering them essential for the world we live in.
But comprehensive schools didn’t satisfy the society and that lead to school reform in the 80s. – GCE O-levels and CSEs were replaced with GCSE taken at 16. – AS level exam, the National Curriculum, a programme of Records of Achievements was introduced. For sure advantages of the system are evident but there is no perfect thing in the world.

English  life  is  full  of  traditions  and  the  English  are said  to  be  steeped  in traditions.  Traditions  can be  divided  into  different  classes:  those  connected with  sports,  with  entertainments,  with holidays  and some  occasions  and  those  with no particular  connection.
What  we  deal  with here  is  a more  or less  random  collection of  customs  chosen  for  their  particular  interest,  their  importance,  former  or  present,  in  lives  of  the  people.
The  English  are  great  lovers  of  sports;  and  when  they  are neither  playing  nor  watching  games,  they  like  to  talk  about them.  By  the  way,  such  sports  and  games  as  football,  volleyball, basket-ball,  tennis  and  boxing  are  quite  popular  in  England  just as  all  over  the  world. But  there  are  games  which  the  English  are especially  fond  of.  They are cricket and golf.  Cricket  is a game  impossible  to  describe  to  foreigners  and  they  are  usually unable  to  appreciate  it.  It  is  at  times not  so  much  a game   as a kind  of  dignified  public ritual  performed by  22  men  in  white flannels  and  two  stationary  old gentlemen  in white  coats  who are  the  referees.
There  are  all  kinds  of racing in  England:  motor-racing, three-legged racing  and  even racing  for  dogs  and  donkeys.
Boat racing is very popular in England.  People started to use boats for racing in the 19th century.  This  is  one  event that  is  fully  amateur  in  the  truest  sense,  with no  cups  or  medals,  the  only reward  being  the  satisfaction  and  pride  of  having had  a  part  in  it,  win  or  lose.  The  annual  boat  contest  between Oxford  and  Cambridge  Universities  dates  back  to  1829.  It takes place in London on the Thames.
Much  leisure  time  is  devoted to gardening.  Most  English  people  like  gardens,  and  this  is  probably  one reason why  so many  people  prefer to  live  in  the  Country.  The  British  like making  things  grow whether  it  is  in a window-box  outside  the kitchen,  or  in  the  garden.  Flower-shows and vegetable-shows with prizes  for the  best  exhibits  are  immensely  popular.
Britain  is  a nation  of  animal  lovers.  Everybody  knows  that. They  will  speak affectionately  to  and  of  their  dogs  and  cats, which   is  more  than  they  will  do   concerning  their  friends and  family.  In  Britain  pets  can  send  Christmas  cards  to  their friends,  birthday  cards,  there  are  even  cards  available  for birds,  fish  and  reptiles.
The most  imposing and spectacular traditions  are  those are connected with Parliament  and Government  as  Parliament  is  a very old institution and acquired  traditions of  its Town.  One of  them is the  state opening of  Parliament when,  as  tradition dictates,  the  Queen reads  the  speech  prepared  by  the  Prime  Minister  to  both  the  House  of  Commons  and the  House  of  Lords.  The Queen  drives  in a  state  coach  pulled  by  six horses  from Buckingham  Palace  to  Westminster.  The  ceremony  takes  place  in  the House  of  Lords  with  a  few  leading  members  of  the  House  of  Commons  standing  close  to  the  end  of  the  chamber^ opposite  the throne  technically  ‘outside’  the  House  of Lords.  This  is  also dictated  by  the  tradition.  
Another tradition  connected with Parliament  is  known as “Guy  Fawkes Day”  which dates  back  to  1605  when some  Catholics with Fawkes  at  the  head decided to blow up Parliament.  On  this day  a group of men in black hats  and red coats  with lanterns in  their hands  searched  the  Cellar  of Parliament.  The  origin of  this tradition has  been forgotten by most  people but  for children is  a day  of great  fun and merriment  because  big fireworks  are  lit’ on  this  day.
The  pageantry and glamour  of traditions  and  ceremonies, connected  with  Parliament  serve  to  catch  the  popular  imagination and divert  public  attention from questions  of vital  importance.


1.   Baranovsky L., Kozikis D. Panorama of Great Britain.  Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola, 1990.
2.   Gearson L. Education in the United Kingdom. London: David Fulton Publishers, 2002
3.   Kozikis D., Medvedev G., Demtchenko N. British Studies. Minsk: Lexis, 2007
4.   McDowall D. An Illustrated History of Britain. Longman, 1989


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) occupies the British Isles and consists of 4 parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The country has the population of 60 million people within the land area of 244 thousand square kilometers. The isles are washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and in the west and by the English Channel in the south. The UK is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea. Great Britain is separated from Northern Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel.

There are many beautiful lakes and mountains in Scotland and England. The highest point in the Highlands is Ben Nevis (1 340 metres). The longest river flows in England, it is the Severn. The main attraction in the north of England is the Lake District. Thanks to the warm waters of Gulf Stream the island is very green and the British climate is mild. Local summers are rather hot and winters are not cold. As the weather is very changeable in Britain, it is the favourite topic for discussion with the British.

The capital of Great Britain is London. It stands on the Thames river. The country is a constitutional monarchy and officially the Queen is the Head of state. But it is ruled by the Prime Minister and the government. The legislative body is the Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The UK is a highly developed industrial state. The chief industries are shipbuilding, fishing and mining, production of aircraft equipment, electronics, textile and chemicals. The country is the world’s largest exporter of iron and steel goods. The most important industrial cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Liverpool, Leeds, Edinburgh.

A lot of famous people were born and lived in Great Britain. Among them are Shakespeare, Newton, Churchill, Paul McCartney, Joanne Rowling, Sting, David Beckham and many others.



Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии (СК) занимает Британские острова и состоит из 4 частей: Англии, Уэльса, Шотландии и Северной Ирландии. Страна имеет население в 60 млн. человек на территории 244 тыс. кв. км. Острова омываются Атлантическим океаном с севера и запада и  проливом Ла-Манш с юга. СК и континентальную Европу разделяет Северное море. Великобританию и Северную Ирландию разделяют Ирландское море и Северный пролив.

В Шотландии и Англии находится много красивых озер и гор. Самой высокой точкой в горной местности является Бен Невис (1340 м). Самая длинная река протекает в Англии, это Северн. Главной достопримечательностью севера Англии является Озерный край. Благодаря теплым водам Гольфстрима, остров очень зеленый, а британский климат мягкий. Лето здесь довольно жаркое, а зима нехолодная. Поскольку погода в Британии очень изменчива, это любимая тема для обсуждения среди британцев.

Столица Великобритании – Лондон. Он находится на реке Темза. Страна является конституционной монархией, и официально королева считается главой государства. Однако им управляют премьер-министр и правительство. Законодательным органом является парламент, состоящий из палаты Лордов и палаты Общин.

СК – высокоразвитая промышленная страна. Основными отраслями промышленности являются судостроение, рыбная и горнодобывающая промышленности, производство авиационной техники, электроники, текстиля и химикатов. Страна стала крупнейшим мировым экспортером товаров из железа и стали. Наиболее важные промышленные города Великобритании – это Лондон, Бирмингэм, Манчестер, Глазго, Ливерпуль, Лидз, Эдинбург.

Много знаменитых людей родилось и проживало в Великобритании. Среди них Шекспир, Ньютон, Черчилль, Пол Маккартни, Джоан Роулинг, Стинг, Дэвид Бэкхэм и многие другие.

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Great Britain

Great Britain is an island in the Atlantic Ocean which is a part of the United Kingdom. It is situated at the north-west of continental Europe. Being the largest island in Europe, it’s the ninth largest island in the world. According to the latest data, the population of Great Britain is above 60 million people. Approximately 80% of population is urban. The surface of the island greatly varies from part to part. While the northern and western part are mountainous (the Highlands), the southern, central and eastern parts are covered by a vast plain (the Lowlands). The deepest river on the island is the Thames, and the longest is the Severn.

Great Britain is divided into three countries. They are England, Scotland, and Wales. The island is surrounded by over 1,000 small islets. Great Britain is considered to be one of the richest and highly developed countries in the world. Its economy is in steady progress. One of its chief industries is shipbuilding. Other than that, Great Britain produces aircraft equipment, machinery, electronics, iron and steel products, textile, chemicals. As for education, Britain is the intellectual center of Europe. The most renowned universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, are situated there.

The political system of Great Britain consists of the monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its apex, and the Parliament. Although the head of state is the Queen, the actual control is performed by the government with a Prime Minister at the head. The House of Lords and the House of Commons constitute the British Parliament. There are certain differences between these Houses. While the House of Lords is an unelected upper chamber, the House of Commons is periodically elected. Three main political parties in the country are the Conservative, the Liberal, and the Labour. The ruling one nowadays is the Conservative party.

The climate of Great Britain is greatly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, and the warm waters of Gulf Stream. The weather on the island is quite changeable. For example, a fine morning can unexpectedly change into a wet afternoon and vice versa. The most unpleasant aspect of British weather is continuous rain and fog. It is especially common in large cities. During thick fog car accidents are a frequent scene. The best time of the year is spring and the worst is winter. January and February are rather cold, humid and unpleasant. Summer days can be rainy too, so most British people prefer spending their summer holidays abroad.

Each country in Great Britain has its own flag, capital, and emblem. For example English flag is known as the St George’s Cross. Its colours are red, blue and white. The capital of the country is London and the emblem is a red rose. Scottish flag contains blue and white colours. It is known as St Andrew’s Cross. The capital of the country is situated in Edinburgh and the national emblem is a thistle. The Welsh flag presents a red dragon on a green and white field. The capital of the country is Cardiff and the national emblem is either the leek or daffodil.



Великобритания – остров в Атлантическом океане, который является частью Соединенного Королевства. Он расположен на северо-западе континентальной Европы. Будучи крупнейшим островом в Европе, это девятый по величине остров в мире. По последним данным, население Великобритании составляет свыше 60 миллионов человек. Около 80% населения проживает в городах. Поверхность острова сильно отличается в разных частях. В то время как северная и западная части гористые (Нагорье), южная, центральная и восточная части покрыты обширной равниной (Низменность). Самая глубокая река на острове Темза, а самая длинная – Северн.

Великобритания состоит из трех стран: Англия, Шотландия и Уэльс. Остров окружен более чем 1000 маленьких островков. Великобритания считается одной из самых богатых и высокоразвитых стран в мире. Ее экономика в устойчивом прогрессе. Одной из главных отраслей промышленности является судостроение. Помимо этого, Великобритания производит авиационное оборудование, технику, электронику, продукцию черной металлургии, текстиль, химикаты. Что касается образования, Великобритания является интеллектуальным центром Европы. Наиболее известные университеты, такие как Оксфорд и Кембридж, расположены там.

Политическая система Великобритании состоит из монархии с королевой Елизаветой II в качестве правителя, и парламента. Несмотря на то, что главой государства является королева, фактический контроль осуществляется правительством во главе с премьер-министром. Британский парламент состоит из Палаты лордов и Палаты общин. Есть определенные различия между этими ветвями. В то время как Палата лордов является не избираемой верхней ветвью, Палата общин периодически переизбирается. Три основные политические партии в стране – это Консервативная, Либеральная и Лейбористская. На сегодняшний день правит Консервативная партия.

На климат Великобритании большое влияние оказывает Атлантический океан и теплые воды Гольфстрима. Погода на острове довольно изменчива. Например, прекрасное утро может неожиданно превратиться в дождливый полдень, ​​и наоборот. Самым неприятным аспектом британской погоды являются непрерывные дожди и туман. Особенно это свойственно крупным городам. Во время густого тумана частое явление транспортные столкновения. Лучшее время года это весна, а худшее – зима. Январь и февраль довольно холодные, влажные и неприятные месяцы. Летние дни могут быть также омрачены дождями, так что большинство британцев предпочитают проводить свой отпуск за рубежом.

Каждая страна в Великобритании имеет свой собственный флаг, столицу, и эмблему. Например, английский флаг известен как Георгиевский крест. Его цвета – красный, синий и белый. Столицей страны является Лондон, а эмблемой – красная роза. Шотландский флаг содержит сине-белые цвета. Он известен как Андреевский крест. Столица страны расположена в Эдинбурге, а национальной эмблемой является чертополох. Валлийский флаг представлен красным драконом на зелено-белом поле. Столицей страны является Кардифф, а национальной эмблемой либо лук-порей, либо нарцисс.

­см. также:
Все статьи на английском языке с переводом


United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland
occupies territory of the British Isles which are situated to the
north-west of Europe. They consist of two main islands: Great Britain
and Ireland. England is in the south of the island of Great Britain,
Scotland is in the north and Wales is in the west. Northen Ireland
is situated in the noth-eastern
part of Ireland. It’s western coast is washed by the Atlantic
ocean. In the east the island of Great Britain is washed by the North
Sea. The Irish Sea, the North Channel and the St. George’s Channel
separate Ireland from Great Britain. Great Britain is separated from
France by the English Channel, which is 32 km wide in it’s
narrowest part. In everyday speech “Great Britain” is used to
mean the UK.

The climat of
Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. As the
weather changes with a wind, and Britain is visited by winds from
different parts of the world, the most characteristic feature of
Britain’s weather is it’s variability. Summers are not hot and
winters are not cold in Britain. The snow never lies for long on the
ground. As a rule there is no ice on the waters of rivers and lakes.
So we may say that the British climat has
3 main features: it is mild, humid and changeble.
That means that it’s never too hot or too warm.

is the official, but not the only language used in the country.

has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conqered most
part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent
tribes in the West and in the North. Further waves of invaders
followed: Angels, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these
contributed to the mixture we call English. For many centuries this
country was known simply as England. It had a strong army and navy.
It waged numerous colonial wars. England, once the “work shop of
the world”, was the first to become a highly industrial country.

are no big rivers in Great Britain. The biggest are Severn and
Thames. There are a lot of mountain in Great Britain, but they are
nit high. The highest mountain – Ben Nevis – is in Scotland. The
flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to
that of the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich in
natural resourses but
there were suffice for the Industrial Revolution to start.

is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans. The
population of London is over 8 million people.

largest cities of Great Britain besides London are:
Birmingham, Glasgo,
Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, Edinburgh. The most
important seaports are: London, Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow and


word “science” comes from the latin word
“scientia”, which means “knowledge”. Scientists make
observations and collect facts in field they work in. Then they
arrange facts ordelly and
try to express the connaction between
the facts and try to work out theories. Then they have to prove the
facts or theory correct and make sufficient and sound evidence.
So sientific knowledge
is always growing and improving.

has great influence on our life. It provides with base of modern
technology, materials, sources of power and so on. Modern science and
technology have changed our life in many different ways. During the
present century our life changed greatly. Thanks to radio and
television we can do a great number of jobs; it was radio and TV that
made it possible to photograph the dark side of the moon and to talk
with the first cosmonaut while he was orbiting the Earth. On of the
wonders og our
age is the “electronic brain”, or giant calculating mashine,
which can to some extent duplicste human sences.
The desk computer is expected to function as your personal librarian,
to carry out simple optimization computations, to control your budget
or diet, play several hundred games, etc. further development of the
computer is bellieved to
lead to a situation in which most of the knowledge accepted by
mankind will be stored in the computers and made accessible to anyone
with the home computers. It is natural that the advent of
minicomputers with extensive memories and possibilities will lead to
a new higher level in information culture. Among other things, we
shall be able to organise educational
process in the country’s colleges and universities and also in the
system of school education on a new basic. Knowledge is the most
valuable wealth, and minicomputers will help us to make it accessible
for everyone. Agrycultiral sientists develop
better varietives of
plants. The development of antibiotics and other drugs has helped to
control many diseases. Studies in anatomy and physiology have let to
amazing surgical operations and the inventions of
lifesaving mashines,
that can do the work of such organs as heart, lungs and so on.
Nuclear fission when a tremendous amount if energy is setting free is
very important discovery.

improved the living standarts,
communications, promoted contact between people and government,
knowledge and culture, made it possible to discover and develop new
sources of energy, made it possible to prolong man’s life. 

greatest scientists were very persistent and were sure in their
success. Even without any serious education they made great
inventions. Even during times of disappointing experiments
and unacknowledgement by
other scientists, they didn’t give up and went on working out
theories. Also they were always  ready
to begin everything from the very beginning. They worked a lot, and
this work wasn’t for money.

aim, the main object of the greatest scientists of all times was
always to find out the trith and
no personal prejudices can be allowed. So the science grows and
prospers and is the engine of progress.

problem of learning languages very important today. Foreign languages
are socially demanded especially at the present time when the
progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of
knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The
total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years.
Foreign languages are needed as the main and the most efficient means
of information exchange of the people of our planet.

English is the language of the world. Over 300 million people speak
it as mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great
Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New
Zealand.  English
is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the
South African Republic. As the second language it is used in the
former British and  US

is not only the national or the official language of some thirty
states which represents different cultures, but it is also the major
international language for communication in such areas as science,
technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the
official languages of the United Nations Organisation and
other political organisations.
It is the language of literature, education, modern music,
international tourism.

is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning
English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today.

far there is no universal or ideal method of learning languages.
Everybody has his own way. Sometimes it is boring to study grammar or
to learn new words. But it is well known that reading books in the
original, listening to BBC news and English speaking singers,
visiting an English speaking country, communicating with the English
speaking people will help a lot.

learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the
native speakers.      

School Education in Great Britain

aim of education in general is to develop to the full the talents of
both children and adults for their own benefit and that of society as
a whole. It is a large-scale investment in the future.

educational system of Great Britain has developed for over a hundred
years. It is a complicated system with wide variations between one
part of the country and another. Three partners are responsible for
the education service: central government – the Department of
Education and Science (DES), local education authorities (LEAs), and
schools themselves. The legal basis for this partnership is supplied
by the 1944 Education Act.

Department of Education and Science is concerned with the formation
of national policies for education. It is responsible for the
maintenance of minimum national standard of education. In exercising
its functions the DES is assisted by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate.
The primary functions of the Inspectors are to give professional
advice to the Department, local education authorities, schools and
colleges, and discuss day-to-day problems with them.

education authorities are charged with the provision and day-to-day
running of the schools and colleges in their areas and the
recruitment and payment of the teachers who work in  them.
They are responsible for the provision of buildings, materials and
equipment. However, the choice of text-books and timetable are
usually left to the headmaster. The content and method of teaching is
decided by the individual teacher.

administrative functions of education in each area are in the hands
of a Chief Education Officer who is assisted by a deputy and other

recently planning and organization were not controlled by central
government. Each LEA was free to decide how to organize education in
its own area. In 1988, however, the National Curriculum was
introduced, which means that there is now greater government control
over what is taught in schools. The aim was to provide a more
balanced education. The new curriculum places greater emphasis on the
more practical aspects of education. Skills are being taught which
pupils will need for life and work.

chief elements of the national Curriculum include a broad and
balanced framework of study which emphasizes the practical
applications of knowledge. It is based around the core subjects of
English, mathematics and science ( biology, chemistry, etc.) as well
as a number of other foundation subjects, including geography,
history, technology and modern languages.

education reform of 1988 also gave all secondary as well as
larger  primary schools responsibilities for managing the
major part of their budgets, including costs of staff. Schools
received the right to withdraw from local education authority control
if they wished.

with the National Curriculum, a programme of Records of Achievements
was introduced. This programme contains a system of new tests for
pupils at the ages of  7, 11, 13 and 16. The aim of these
tests is to discover any schools or areas which are not teaching to a
high enough standard. But many believe that these tests are unfair
because they reflect differences in home rather than in ability.

great majority of children (about 9 million) attend Britain’s
30,500 state schools. No tuition fees are payable in any of them. A
further 600,000 go to 2,500 private schools, often referred to as the
“independent sector” where the parents have to pay for their

most primary and secondary state schools boys and girls are taught
together. Most independent schools for younger children are also
mixed, while the majority of private secondary schools are

schools are almost all day  schools, holding classes
between Mondays and Fridays. The school year normally begins in early
September and continues into the following July. The year is divided
into three terms of about 13 weeks each.

of state schools are wholly owned and maintained by LEAs. The
remainder are voluntary schools, mostly belonging to the Church of
England or the Roman Catholic Church. They are also financed by LEAs.

state school has its own governing body (a board of governors),
consisting of teachers, parents, local politicians, businessmen and
members of the local community. Boards of governors are responsible
for their school’s main policies, including the recruitment of the

great role is played by the Parent Teacher Association (PTA).
Practically all parents are automatically members of the PTA and are
invited to take part in its many activities. Parental involvement
through the PTA and other links between parents and schools is
growing . The PTA forms both a special focus for parents and much
valued additional resources for the school. Schools place great value
on the PTA as a further means of listening to parents and developing
the partnership between home and school. A Parent’s Charter
published by the Government in 1991 is designed to enable parents to
take more informed decisions about their children’s education.

education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and
at the age of 4 in Northern Ireland. All pupils must stay at school
until the age of 16. About 9 per cent of pupils in state schools
remain at school voluntarily until the age of 18.

within the state school system comprises either two tiers (stages) –
primary and secondary, or three tiers – first schools, middle
schools and upper schools.

all state secondary schools are comprehensive, they embrace pupils
from 11 to 18. The word “comprehensive” expresses the idea that
the schools in question take all children in a given area without,

EDUCATION. Education for the under-fives, mainly from 3 to 5, is
not compulsory and can be provided in nursery schools and nursery
classes attached to primary schools. Although they are called
schools, they give little formal education. The children spend most
of their time in some sort of play activity, as far as possible of an
educational kind. In any case, there are not enough of them to take
all children of that age group. A large proportion of children at
this beginning stage is in the private sector where fees are payable.
Many children attend pre-school playgroups, mostly organized by
parents, where children can go for a morning or afternoon a couple of
times a week.

EDUCATION. The primary school usually takes children from 5 to
11. Over half of the primary schools take the complete age group from
5 to 11. The remaining schools take the pupils aged 5 to 7 – infant
schools, and  8 to 11 – junior schools. However, some
LEAs have introduced first school, taking children aged 5 to 8, 9 to
10. The first school is followed by the middle school which embraces
children from 8 to 14. Next comes the upper school (the third tier)
which keeps middle school leavers until the age of 18. This
three-stage system (first, middle and upper) is becoming more and
more popular in a growing number of areas. The usual age for transfer
from primary to secondary school is 11.

EDUCATION. Secondary education is compulsory up to the age of
16, and pupils may stay on at school voluntarily until they are 18.
Secondary schools are much larger than primary schools and most
children (over 80 per cent) go to comprehensive schools.

are three categories of comprehensive schools:

1)    schools
which take pupils from 11 to 18,

2)    schools
which embrace middle school leavers from 12, 13or 14 to 18, and

3)    schools
which take the age group from 11 to 16.

pupils in the latter group, wishing to continue their education
beyond the age of 16 (to be able to enter university) may transfer to
the sixth form of an 11-18 school, to a sixth-form college or to a
tertiary college which provide complete courses of secondary
education. The tertiary college offers also part-time vocational

schools admit children of all abilities and provide a wide range of
secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.

some areas children moving from state primary to secondary education
are still selected for certain types of school according to their
current level of academic attainment. There are grammar and secondary
modern schools, to which children are allowed at the age of 11 on the
basis of their abilities. Grammar schools provide a mainly academic
education for the 11 to 18 age group. Secondary modern schools offer
a more general education with a practical bias up to the minimum
school-leaving age of 16.

local education authorities run technical schools (11 – 18). They
provide a general academic education, but place particular emphasis
on technical subjects. However, as a result of comprehensive
reorganization the number of grammar and secondary modern schools
fell radically by the beginning of the 1990s.

are special schools adapted for the physically and mentally
handicapped children. The compulsory period of schooling here is from
5 to 16. A number of handicapped pupils begin younger and stay on
longer. Special schools and their classes are more generously staffed
than ordinary schools and provide, where possible. Physiotherapy,
speech therapy and other forms of treatment. Special schools are
normally maintained by state, but a large proportion of special
boarding schools are private and fee-charging.

5 per cent of Britain’s children attend independent or private
schools outside the free state sector. Some parents choose to pay for
private education in spite of the existence of free state education.
These schools charge between 300 pounds a term for day nursery pupils
and 3,500 pounds a term for senior boarding-school pupils.

independent schools have to register with the Department of Education
and Science and are subject to inspection be Her Majesty’s
Inspecrorate, which is absolutely independent. About 2,300 private
schools provide primary and secdondary education.

550 most privileged and expensive schools are commonly known as
public schools.

principal examinations taken by secondary school pupils at the age of
16 are those leading to the General Certificate of Secondary
Education (GCSE). It aims to assess pupils’ ability to apply their
knowledge to solving practical problems. It is the minimum school
leaving age, the level which does not allow school-leavers to enter
university but to start work or do some vocational training.

chief examinations at the age of 18 are leading to the General
Certificate of Education Advanced level (GCE A-level). It enables
sixth-formers to widen their subject areas and move to higher
education. The systems of examinations are co-ordinated and
supervisedby the Secondary Examination Council.

to universities is carried out by examinationor selection
(interview). Applicants for places in nearly all the universities are
sent initially to the Universities and Colleges Admission Service
(UCAS). In the application an applicant can list up to five
universities or colleges in order to preference. Applications must be
sent to the UCAS in the autumn term of the academic year preceding
that in which the applicant hopes to be admitted. The UCAS sends a
copy to aech of the universities or colleges named. Each univesity
selects its own students.

overall pupil-teacher ratio in state primary  and secondary
schools is about 18 to 1, on of the most favourable in the world.

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Текст про Great Britain – топик о Великобритании, достопримечательностях и особенностях. Написание текстов про Великобританию или устные рассказы — популярная тема в школах и университетах.

Флаг Великобритании

Great Britain

Текст на английском про Great Britain:

Great Britain Великобритания
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy consisting of the historical-geographical regions of England, Scotland and Wales (which together from Great Britain) and Northern Ireland, plus several smaller islands, including the Orkneys, the Shetland, the Hebrides, off the Scottish coast; the Isle of Wight, in the English Channel; the Isle of Anglesey, near the Welsh coast; the Isles of Scilly, opposite the Cape Land’s End. They are not part of the United Kingdom, but depend directly on the Crown, conserving extensive autonomy: the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea, and the Channel Islands located in the English Channel, a short distance from the French coast. Соединенное Королевство – конституционная монархия, состоит из историко-географических регионов Англия, Шотландия и Уэльс (на острове Великобритания) и Северная Ирландия. В составе также нескольких небольших островов, включая Оркнейские острова, Шетландские острова, Гебриды, от шотландского побережья; остров Уайт, в Ла-Манше; остров Англси, недалеко от побережья Уэльса; архипелаг Силли, напротив мыса Лендс-Энд. Не являются частью Соединенного Королевства, но зависят напрямую от Короны, сохраняя обширную автономию: остров Мэн в Ирландском море и Нормандские острова, расположенные в Ла-Манше, недалеко от французского побережья.
When it comes to Great Britain, there is usually some confusion with the names. Great Britain is simply the name of the island, with an exclusively geographical value. It is also the largest island in the British archipelago. Great Britain includes Scotland, England and Wales, while the United Kingdom also includes Northern Ireland. In this regard it is interesting to know that the flag of the United Kingdom is the union of three flags: England, Scotland and Ireland. Когда разговор заходит о Великобритании обычно случается некоторая путаница с названиями. Великобритания – это просто название острова исключительно с географическим значением. Это также самый большой остров Британского архипелага. Великобритания включает Шотландию, Англию и Уэльс, в то время как Соединенное Королевство также включает Северную Ирландию. В этой связи интересно знать, что флаг Соединенного Королевства является объединением трех флагов: Англии, Шотландии и Ирландии.
Great Britain or the United Kingdom is a sovereign country in Western Europe with a population of around 64.5 million. The name of “United Kingdom” is none other than the acronym of “The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”. Великобритания или Соединенное Королевство – суверенная страна в Западной Европе с населением около 64,5 млн. человек. Название «Соединенное Королевство» – не что иное, как аббревиатура «Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии».
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was born with the 1800 Union Act which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland. A large part of Ireland then separated in 1922 constituting the Free State of Ireland (the current Republic of Ireland). Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Ирландии образовалось в результате Акта об унии 1800 года, который объединил Королевство Великобритании и Королевство Ирландии. Большая часть Ирландии разделилась в 1922 году, образовав Свободное государство Ирландия (нынешняя Ирландия).
Although the term Great Britain refers to the island and to England, Scotland and Wales in the political value, it is in many cases used as a free synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole. Хотя термин Великобритания относится к острову и к Англии, Шотландии и Уэльсу в политическом значении он во многих случаях используется как свободный синоним для Соединенного Королевства в целом.
England is the hub of Great Britain, better known to most people and where much of the administration is concentrated. Англия – центр Британии, более известный большинству людей, где сосредоточена основная административная часть.
Great Britain is among the best-defined regions in Europe. Великобритания – один из лучших регионов Европы.
The ancient Albion (the classical name in Gaelic) well known to Greeks and Romans like Britain (from the Latin root “fetus”, “narrow”) largely depends on the characteristics peculiar to its geographical location. Древний Альбион (классическое название, обозначенное на гэльском языке), хорошо известный грекам и римлянам как Британия (от латинского корня «fretus», «узкий») во многом зависит от характеристик, свойственных его географическому положению.
Insularity and the peripheral location of Great Britain compared to continental Europe contributed to its isolation for a long time, at least until the Mediterranean became the center of world trade. Изолированность и периферийное расположение региона по сравнению с континентальной Европой способствовали его изоляции в течение длительного времени, по крайней мере, до тех пор, пока Средиземноморье не стало центром мировой торговли.
Subsequently, when trade moved to the northern seas of Europe, during the reign of Elizabeth I, Great Britain underwent a profound transformation and became the driving force behind a gigantic human, political, economic and cultural expansion. Впоследствии, когда торговля переместилась в северные моря Европы, во времена правления Елизаветы I, Великобритания претерпела глубокие преобразования и стала движущей силой гигантской человеческой, политической, экономической и культурной экспансии.
After opposing revolutionary France and then the Napoleonic one, Great Britain experienced a general demographic increase, an increase in agricultural productivity and, in the last part of the eighteenth century, especially in the textile and metallurgical sector. That industrial revolution affirmed Great Britain as “The workshop of the world”. После противостояния революционной Франции, затем наполеоновской, Великобритания испытала общий демографический рост, повышение производительности сельского хозяйства, в последней части восемнадцатого века особенно в текстильном и металлургическом секторе. Эта промышленная революция утвердила Великобританию как «мастерскую мира».
In 1837, with the rise to the throne of Queen Victoria, Great Britain further strengthened its role as a world power but with the beginning of the new century also ended the era of its expansion. В 1837 году, после восхождения на трон королевы Виктории, Великобритания еще больше укрепила роль мировой державы, но с началом нового века также закончилась эпоха её расширения.

Приведенный текст на английском про Great Britain подойдет для сочинения или рассказа о стране.

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Текст, включающий общее описание культуры Великобритании:

Текст на английском Перевод
A great exporter of culture and traditions following the imperialist vocation that made it the pivot of the economy and world trade. Great Britain was home to famous artists whose works continue to be admired all over the world. Великий экспортер культуры и традиций, следуя империалистическому призванию, которое сделало его стержнем экономики и мировой торговли, Соединенное Королевство – родина знаменитых художников, работы которых продолжают восхищать во всем мире.
From architecture to painting, from theater to literature and from science to technology, British culture reflects the diversity and the multiethnic nature of its population, articulated in an expressive language recognized internationally. От архитектуры к живописи, от театра к литературе, от науки к технологиям британская культура отражает многообразие и мультиэтнический характер его населения, четко выраженный в выразительном языке, признанном на международном уровне.

Следующий текст про Great Britain рассказывает о достопримечательностях страны:

Текст на английском Перевод
The British society, in addition to the traditional elements and the peculiar rituals that are proper to it, has often been the center of new ideas later spread throughout Europe. Британское общество, в дополнение к традиционным элементам и особым ритуалам, которые ему присущи, часто было центром новых идей, которые позже распространились по всей Европе.
This is the case of the “revolution” made by rock & rolls that starting from the sixties, shakes the young Britons. Так обстоит с «революцией», созданной рок-н-роллом, которая начиная с шестидесятых годов, потрясает молодых британцев.
Music of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, as well as the introduction of a mini skirt (created in 1963 by stylist Mary Quant), launch fashions creating a transversal movement symbolizing the rebellion of young people. Музыка Битлз и Роллинг Стоун, также как введение мини-юбки (созданной в 1963 году стилистом Мэри Квант), запускает моду, создающую трансграничное движение, которое символизируют мятеж молодых людей.
The national language of Great Britain is English, but within the borders of the United Kingdom, there are minorities who are always bilingual. Национальным языком является английский, однако в пределах Соединенного Королевства есть меньшинства, которые всегда говорят на двух языках.
Training and research in Great Britain are funded by specific councils set up by the Parliament. Подготовка кадров и научные исследования финансируются специальными советами, созданными Парламентом.
Many of the oldest universities in Great Britain rely on their substantial funds: among these, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge founded in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and the Scottish universities of Edinburgh, Saint Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen dating back to the fourteenth century. Многие из старейших университетов полагаются на свои значительные средства: среди них университеты Оксфорда и Кембриджа, основанные в 12 и 13 веке, и шотландские университеты Эдинбурга, Сент-Андруса, Глазго, Абердина, датируемые 14 веком.
The presence of numerous museums, art galleries, theaters, and historic buildings bears witness to the wealth of the artistic and cultural heritage of Great Britain, where important events are held every year. Наличие многочисленных музеев, художественных галерей, театров и исторических зданий свидетельствует о богатстве художественного и культурного наследия Соединенного Королевства, где ежегодно проводятся важные мероприятия.
London, where the major cultural institutions are based, plays a leading role, but Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and all regions of England also have deep traditions. Лондон, где базируются основные культурные учреждения, играет ведущую роль, но Шотландия, Уэльс, Северная Ирландия и все регионы Англии также имеют глубокие традиции.
In London, there are the British Museum, the National Gallery, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Tate Gallery and the Courtauld Institute of Art. В Лондоне находится Британский музей, Национальная галерея, музей Виктории и Альберта, галерея Тейт и институт искусства Курто.
Also worthy of note are the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and Fitzwilliam in Cambridge; the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery; the Tate Galleries of Liverpool and Saint Ives; The National Science and Media Museum in Bradford. Заслуживают также внимания музей Эшмола в Оксфорде, музей Фицуильяма в Кембридже, музей и художественная галерея в Бирмингеме, галереи Тейт в Ливерпуле и Сент-Айвс, Национальный музей науки и средств массовой информации в Брэдфорде.
Scotland hosts one of the world’s leading art festivals, the Edinburgh Festival. В Шотландии проходит один из ведущих международных художественных фестивалей — Эдинбургский фестиваль.
Among the various annual events consecrated Welsh music, poetry, and traditions, the National Eisteddfod of Wales is of great importance. Среди различных ежегодных мероприятий, посвященных валлийской музыке, поэзии и традициям, большое значение имеет Национальный Эйстетвод Уэльса.

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Текст на английском Перевод
Great Britain also has numerous monuments and historic sites of international importance declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. В Соединенном Королевстве расположены многочисленные памятники и исторические места, имеющие мировое значение, объекты Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО.
In Great Britain, there are the cathedral and the castle of Durham, the palace and the abbey of Westminster, the cathedral of Canterbury, the Royal Botanic Gardens of London, the megalithic complexes of Stonehenge and Avebury, the Tower of London, the Hadrian’s Wall. In Scotland, there is the entire city of Edinburgh, the historic village of New Lanark and the small archipelago of Saint Kilda (which is also a natural site). In Wales, there are the Harlech castle and the industrial area (19th century) of Blaenavon. В Англии – собор и замок Дарем, дворец и аббатство Вестминстер, собор Кентербери, Королевский ботанический сад Лондона, мегалитические комплексы Стоунхенджа и Эйвбери, Лондонский Тауэр, Вал Адриана. В Шотландии – весь город Эдинбург, историческая деревня Нью-Ланарк и небольшой архипелаг Сент-Килда (который также является природным объектом). В Уэльсе – замок Харлех и промышленный район (19 век) Блэнавона.

Geographical Position And Physical Features

Карта Великобритании

Текст про Geographical position and physical features of Great Britain (географическое положение и физические особенности Великобритании):

Текст на английском Перевод
Great Britain is the geographical name of an island, located in the Atlantic Ocean, with an area of almost 230,000 square kilometers. Великобритания – географическое название острова, расположенного в Атлантическом океане площадью почти 230 000 квадратных километров.
Great Britain is the largest island of the British Isles, to which the island of Ireland, the Isle of Man and many other minor ones belong. Это крупнейший остров в архипелаге Британские острова, включающего остров Ирландию, остров Мэн и многие другие, небольшие острова.
Britain is made up of the island of Great Britain and the northern part of the island of Ireland, known as Northern Ireland or Ulster. Британия состоит из острова Великобритания и северной части острова Ирландия, известной как Северная Ирландия или Ольстер.
Great Britain is bathed to the north and east by the North Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the west it is separated from Ireland by The North Channel, the Irish Sea, and the St. George canal. The only land border separates Britain from the Republic of Ireland. Страна омывается на севере и востоке Северным море, на юге – проливом Ла-Манш, на западе отделена от Ирландии Северным каналом, Ирландским морем и каналом Св. Георгия. Единственная сухопутная граница отделяет ее от Ирландской Республики.
In a territory of Great Britain so geographically settled the rivers have mature courses, abundant and regular flow, as they are well fed by precipitation; however, their development is short, given the shape of the island, altogether narrow, elongated and interrupted by mountain peaks. На территории, столь географически обоснованной, реки зрелые с обильными и регулярными течениями, поскольку хорошо питаются осадками; однако их расширение небольшое, учитывая форму острова, в целом узкую, вытянутую и прерванную горными вершинами.
Moreover, the rivers generally flow with wide and deep estuaries, which have been able to develop well protected and important port centers. Кроме того, реки, как правило, с широкими и глубокими устьями, в которых удалось создать хорошо защищенные и важные портовые центры.
London is at the mouth of the Thames. Secondly, Glasgow is located on the River Clyde (main river of Scotland). Liverpool is port at the mouth of the Mersey River. The Severn Estuary is the confluence of four major rivers: the Severn (which gives it its name), the Wye, the Usk, and the Avon. Лондон в устье Темзы, Глазго, расположенный в устье Клайд (главная река Шотландии). Ливерпуль – порт в устье реки Мерси. Эстуарий Северн – место слияния четырех крупных рек: Северн (давшая ему название), Уай, Аск и Эйвон.
The rivers of Great Britain are large and to a large extent navigable, while the rivers have run rather fast and impetuously in Scotland and Wales, where they are used for the production of electricity. Английские реки большие и в значительной степени судоходные, в то время реки в Шотландии и Уэльсе достаточно быстрые и стремительные, и используются для производства электроэнергии.
Typical of the Scottish region is the loch, narrow, elongated, deep lakes. The largest lake basin in the country, however, is the Irish Lough Neagh (396 km²), with the low but jagged banks. Типично для шотландского региона – лох; узкие, вытянутые и глубокие озера. Самым большим озером в стране является ирландский Лох-Ней (396 квадратных км), с низкими, но неровными берегами.
Great Britain has an extraordinary correspondence between the geological structure and aspects of the landscape. У страны необычное соответствие между геологическим строением и аспектами ландшафта.
Mostly mountainous (Highland Britain) is Paleozoic Britain, while flat (Lowland Britain) is the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Great Britain. But even in the Highland Britain the antiquity of the relief, worn down by intense glacial action, manifests itself in low forms and generally rounded (in Scotland, however, they often have rough edges). Горная в основном Палеозойская Британия, равнинная – мезозойская и кайнозойская Великобритания. Но даже в гористой Британии древность рельефа, изношенного интенсивным ледниковым действием, проявляется в низких формах и обычно округлых (в Шотландии, однако, они часто имеют грубые края).
The Cambrian Mountains and Ben Nevis are the highest peaks in Great Britain. Кембрийские горы и Бен-Невис – самые высокие горные вершины в Великобритании

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Текст рассказывает про климатические особенности Великобритании:

Текст на английском Перевод
The climate of Great Britain is humid and mild, with rainy winters and cool summers. Английский климат мягкий и влажный, с дождливой зимой и прохладным летом.
The average maximum summer temperature is 21°C, while the mean minimum winter temperature is 1°C. Средняя максимальная температура летом составляет 21°C, тогда как средняя минимальная температура зимой – 1°C.
May and June are the sunniest months in Great Britain, while November and December are the cloudiest. Май и июнь – самые солнечные дни, в то время как ноябрь и декабря – самые облачные.
Almost all the territory of Great Britain is subject to an essentially oceanic climate, uniformly mild and rainy; this is the result of the vast maritime opening of the country, devoid of internal mountain barriers and in a marginal position compared to the block of continental lands, and its shape, which expands in the more temperate southern section; fundamental is the influence of the warm Gulf stream, thanks to which, at the same latitude, winter temperatures are much higher than in central and eastern Europe. Почти вся территория Великобритании подвержена, по существу, океаническому климату, равномерно мягкому и дождливому; это результат обширного морского окружения страны, лишенной внутренних горных барьеров и находящейся в краевом положении по сравнению с блоком континентальных земель, и её формой, которая расширяется в более умеренной южной части; фундаментальным является влияние теплого течения Гольфстрима, благодаря которому зимние температуры намного выше, чем в центральной и восточной Европе на той же широте.
Constant humidity, warm winters, cool summers in Britain is important factors also for the population of the islands. Постоянная влажность, теплые зимы, прохладное лето являются важными факторами и для населения островов.
However, the influences of the sea air masses on the western side of Great Britain are more sensitive, while at East, especially in winter, the continental anticyclone ones become more marked. Однако влияние морских воздушных масс на западной стороне Великобритании более чувствительно, тогда как на Востоке, особенно зимой, континентальные антициклоны становятся более заметными.
Temperatures vary so much from West to East, especially for winter thermal values: in the coldest month, January, it goes from 3.5°C in the London area to 6.5°C in Cornwall, the warmest region of Great Britain (enough to allow even the presence of palm trees and other subtropical plants). Температуры варьируются от Запада до Востока, особенно для зимних температурных значений: в самый холодный месяц, январь, от 3,5°C в районе Лондона до 6,5°C в Корнуолле, самом теплом регионе Великобритании (достаточно для того, чтобы расти пальмам и другим субтропическим растениям).
On the other hand, it is fairly regular to increase the summer thermal values from North to South: in July southern Britain is crossed by the isotherm of 16.5°C and northern Scotland by that of 13°C. С другой стороны, довольно регулярно повышаются летние тепловые значения с севера на юг: в июле южная Британия пересекает изотерму 16,5°C, а северная Шотландия – равную 13°C.
The rains frequently fall in every season; however much less humid is the eastern side of Great Britain, more “continental” (London and generally England receive less than 700 mm per year of rainfall), while on the slopes of the Highlands more exposed to the sea air masses are reached even 5000 mm per year. Дожди часто выпадают в каждом сезоне; однако гораздо менее влажная восточная сторона Великобритании, более «континентальная» (Лондон и вообще Англия получают менее 700 мм в год осадков), тогда как склоны Высокогорья, подверженные воздействию морских воздушных масс, получают даже до 5000 мм в год.
Frequent are the mists, for the meeting of warm and humid air carried by the Gulf Stream with the cold from within. Частые туманы, из-за встречи теплого и влажного воздуха, переносимого потоком Гольфстрима с холодом изнутри.

National Economy

Деньги в Великобритании

Текст подробно рассказывает про экономику в Великобритании:

Текст на английском Перевод
Since the early nineties, Britain has experienced uninterrupted economic growth, in contrast with a much more precarious international economic picture. A healthy financial situation has allowed Great Britain not to suffer too much from the global economic crisis, while also delaying any decision by the government regarding the adoption of the single European currency. С начала девяностых Британия переживала непрерывный экономический рост, в отличие от гораздо более неустойчивой международной экономической картины. Здоровая финансовая ситуация позволила Великобритании не слишком сильно пострадать от глобального экономического кризиса, а также отложить какое-либо решение правительства относительно принятия единой европейской валюты.
The heart of the “industrial revolution” and, therefore, the true engine of the modern economy, Great Britain laid the foundations for its decisive affirmation at the end of the eighteenth century. Сердце «промышленной революции» и, следовательно, истинный двигатель современной экономики, Великобритания заложила основы для своего решительного утверждения в конце восемнадцатого века.
The presence of very conspicuous mineral resources (charcoal species) in Great Britain and a dynamic entrepreneurial class enriched by the capital accumulated over the centuries by a skilled mercantile policy were the extraordinary starting point for economic expansion. A wise organization of work and a technology of the era of absolute avant-garde helped to achieve incomparable summits of prosperity. Наличие заметных полезных ископаемых (древесный уголь) и динамичный предпринимательский класс, обогащенный капиталом, накопленным на протяжении веков квалифицированной меркантильной политикой, стали исключительной отправной точкой для экономической экспансии. Мудрая организация труда и технология эпохи абсолютного авангарда способствовали достижению несравнимых вершин процветания.
The Bank of England in Great Britain, created by concession in 1694 and nationalized in 1946, is the only bank authorized to issue money in England and Wales. Some banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland can issue money in limited quantities. Банк Англии, созданный концессией в 1694 году и национализированный в 1946 году, является единственным банком, правомочным выдавать деньги в Англии и Уэльсе. Некоторые банки в Шотландии и Северной Ирландии могут выпускать деньги в ограниченных количествах.
In recent years the British have stood out as the largest foreign investors in the world after the United States: about 50% of exchanges take place with European Union countries, especially with Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy, 13% around with the United States and Canada. В последние годы британцы выделяются как крупнейшие иностранные инвесторы в мире после Соединенных Штатов. Около 50% обменов происходит со странами ЕС, особенно с Германией, Нидерландами, Францией и Италией, 13% – с США и Канадой.
The financial market in Great Britain is very important: the London Stock Exchange, by far the most important in Europe, follows Wall Street as a global market. Финансовый рынок очень важен: Лондонская фондовая биржа, безусловно, самая значительная в Европе, следуя за Уолл-стрит, как глобальный рынок.
Square Mile (the “square mile”) of the City of London, where the City’s banking, insurance, and consulting services are located, continues to be one of the leading financial centers in the world and the main one in Europe. Квадратная миля Лондонского Сити, где расположены банковские, страховые и консалтинговые услуги города, продолжает оставаться одним из ведущих финансовых центров в мире и главным в Европе.
Trade has been of vital importance to the United Kingdom for hundreds of years. The dominant position of Great Britain in world trade during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was largely due to the geographical isolation of the British Isles in relation to the conflicts and political problems that the continent was facing. Торговля имеет жизненное значение для Соединенного Королевства в течение сотен лет. Доминирующее положение страны в мировой торговле в течение восемнадцатого и девятнадцатого веков было во многом обусловлено географической изоляцией Британских островов в связи с конфликтами и политическими проблемами, с которыми сталкивался континент.
The development of large merchant companies (East India Company, Hudson Bay Company), colonial expansion and naval control of the seas in Britain were consequential factors. Основными факторами было развитие крупных торговых компаний (Ост-Индская компания, компания Гудзонова залива), колониальная экспансия и контроль над морями.
With mercantilism, the prevailing economic doctrine in Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Great Britain promoted foreign trade, the development of the fleet and merchant companies. С меркантилизмом, господствующей экономической доктриной в Англии в 17 и 18 веках, государство способствовало развитию внешней торговли, флота и торговых компаний.
With the increase of British colonial possessions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, sheep breeding for the production of wool and meat became an important activity in the colonies, while cotton, iron, steel, and coal became the main export products. С ростом британских колониальных владений в восемнадцатом и девятнадцатом веках овцеводство для производства шерсти и мяса стало важной деятельностью в колониях, а хлопок, железо, сталь и уголь стали основными экспортными продуктами.
Today, Great Britain is the fifth country in the world by volume of trade, with a per capita value of exports higher than that of the United States and Japan. Сегодня Соединенное Королевство является пятой страной в мире по объему торговли, причем стоимость экспорта на душу населения выше, чем у Соединенных Штатов и Японии.
British exports include machinery, transportation, basic products, petroleum, chemicals, and precision instruments, aerospace and electronic equipment. Британский экспорт включает в себя машины, транспорт, основные продукты, нефть, химикаты и высокоточные инструменты, аэрокосмическое и электронное оборудование.
The main import goods in Great Britain are foodstuffs, wood and paper products, machinery, chemical products and means of transport. Основными импортными товарами в Великобритании являются пищевые продукты, древесная и бумажная продукция, машинное оборудование, химические продукты и транспортные средства.
Services continue to be a leading sector of the British economy. In fact, they contribute about 2/3 to the formation of GDP, employing almost 20 million people, over 75% of the country’s workforce. Услуги по-прежнему являются ведущим сектором экономики Великобритании. Фактически, они вносят около 2/3 в формирование ВВП, в котором занято почти 20 миллионов человек, более 75% рабочей силы страны.
The morphological characteristics of Great Britain, the lack of real natural barriers, the dense hydrographic network and the remarkable coastal development, have contributed to the development of the communication routes. In particular, the best-served areas are England and southern Scotland, while some shortcomings are found in sparsely inhabited or economically less developed areas. Морфологические характеристики Великобритании, отсутствие реальных природных барьеров, плотная гидрографическая сеть и замечательное прибрежное развитие способствовали развитию коммуникационных маршрутов. В частности, наиболее обеспеченными районами являются Англия и южная Шотландия, в то время как некоторые недостатки встречаются в малонаселенных или экономически менее развитых районах.

Political System

Политическая система в Англии

Устройство политической системы Великобритании отличается от других стран, рассказать об этом поможет текст ниже:

Текст на английском Перевод
The political system of Great Britain forms a very complex whole: the monarchy, democracy and parliament. Английская политическая система формирует очень сложное целое: монархию, демократию и парламент.
At the head of the government of Great Britain is the Prime Minister, who concentrates several powers in its hands and presides over the parliament. Во главе правительства находится премьер-министр, который концентрирует в своих руках несколько полномочий и председательствует в парламенте.
The bicameral parliament is formed by the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Двухпалатный парламент образован Палатой Лордов и Палатой общин.
Finally, there is a monarchy now represented by Queen Elizabeth II whose authority is limited since 1689, when the Bill of Rights was approved, that is, the declaration of rights establishing parliamentary sovereignty. Наконец, монархия, в настоящее время представленная королевой Елизаветой II, чья власть ограничена с 1689 года, когда был утвержден Билль о правах, то есть декларация прав, устанавливающая парламентский суверенитет.
In the British political system, however, the Queen can exercise three rights: to be consulted, to advise and to warn. Однако в британской политической системе королева может реализовать три права: консультироваться, советовать и предупреждать.
The Prime Minister of Great Britain meets with the queen constantly and if for example there is no separation of powers in parliament and this in itself threatens the freedom or security of British citizens, the strength of the Crown can be significant, not least because the monarch is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces to whom they swore allegiance. Премьер-министр проводит встречи с королевой постоянно и если, например, отсутствует разделение полномочий в парламенте и это само по себе угрожает свободе или безопасности британских граждан, сила Короны может иметь значительный вес, не в последнюю очередь потому, что монарх также является главнокомандующим вооруженными силами, которому они поклялись в верности.
In any case, executive power in Britain is generally exercised by the Government and the Prime Minister. This is usually the leader of the House of Commons (which is part of the majority party). The other ministers forming the Government in Great Britain are then chosen by the Prime Minister and the Monarch who consult before the decision. В любом случае исполнительная власть обычно осуществляется правительством и премьер-министром. Обычно это лидер Палаты общин (которая является частью партии большинства). Затем другие министры, формирующие правительство выбираются премьер-министром и монархом которые консультируются перед решением.
Legislative power is the power exercised by parliament which is also the center of the British political system. Законодательная власть – это власть, осуществляемая парламентом, который также является центром британской политической системы.
English Parliament is the supreme body and has the power to vote in distrust of the Government. Английский Парламент является высшим органом и имеет право голосовать о недоверии правительству.
The formation of the House of Commons in Great Britain is carried out through universal equal direct elections. The House of Lord, on the other hand, is made up of members by inheritance, bishops of the Church Anglican and members appointed for life; has reduced power, compared to the House of Commons but can propose amendments and draft laws. Формирование палаты общин осуществляется посредством всеобщих равных прямых выборов. С другой стороны, Палата общин состоит из членов по наследству, епископов Церкви англиканцев и членов, назначенных на всю жизнь; имеет меньшую власть по сравнению с Палатой общин, но может предлагать поправки и проекты законов.

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Education in Great Britain

Английская система образования

Образованию в Великобритании также присуща своя собственная система, описанная в тексте ниже:

Текст на английском Перевод
First of all, public education in Britain is free. The schools of Great Britain are divided into maintained (state schools) and independent (private schools). Прежде всего, государственное образование является бесплатным. Английские школы разделены на государственные и частные.
Since the nineteenth century, the school system of Great Britain strongly believes in the decentralization of decisions. С девятнадцатого века школьная система Соединенного Королевства решительно верит в децентрализацию решений.
Local education authorities (LEAs) in Britain are the local councils, 96 throughout the country, that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. In fact, the LEAs administer the whole system and are responsible for ensuring that free public education is provided in an appropriate manner. Местные органы образования – местные советы, 96 по всей стране, которые отвечают за образование в пределах своей юрисдикции. Фактически LEA управляют всей системой и несут ответственность за обеспечение того, чтобы бесплатное государственное образование предоставлялось надлежащим образом.
Education in Great Britain is compulsory for everyone between the ages of five and sixteen. Образование в Соединенном Королевстве является обязательным для всех в возрасте от пяти до шестнадцати лет.
The phases of the English school system in Britain are three: Primary Education up to eleven years, Secondary Education up to sixteen, and Tertiary Education for those over the age of sixteen. Этапов английской школьной системы три: начальное образование до одиннадцати лет, среднее образование до шестнадцати лет и третичное образование для лиц старше шестнадцати лет.
Tertiary education or postsecondary education in Great Britain is not compulsory but 90% of the total number of students continues to attend school until the age of 18 when a diploma is obtained necessary to enroll at the university. Третичное образование не является обязательным, но 90% от общего числа учащихся продолжают посещать школу до 18 лет, когда требуется получение диплома для поступления в университет.
In 1988, the Education Reform Act introduced a program common to all schools with regard to fundamental subjects; at 7 and 11 years, students take exams in English, mathematics, and science. В 1988 году Закон о реформе образования ввел программу, общую для всех школ в отношении фундаментальных предметов; в 7 и 11 лет учащиеся сдают экзамены по английскому языку, математике и естественным наукам.
Individual schools in Great Britain decide on methodologies and books to be adopted. Private schools in Britain are exempt from following public school guidelines but usually, they also adopt what is called the National Curriculum. Отдельные школы принимают решение о методологиях и учебниках. Частные школы освобождаются от соблюдения руководящих принципов государственной школы, но обычно они также принимают так называемый национальный учебный план.
While education and vocational education systems in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland are broadly similar, the Scottish education system has always been a completely separate system, with its own rules and practices. В то время как системы образования и профессионального образования в Англии, Уэльсе и Северной Ирландии в целом сходны, шотландская система образования всегда была полностью отдельной системой с собственными правилами и практикой.
Learning is based on experiences, group work and highly stimulating activities that require the full participation of each student. Обучение основано на опыте, групповой работе и высоко стимулирующих действиях, требующих полного участия каждого ученика.
One of the strengths of the educational system in Great Britain is a great collaboration with the parents of the students. The family is always and continuously involved in the process of learning their child. Одной из сильных сторон английской системы является хорошее сотрудничество с родителями. Семья всегда и постоянно участвует в процессе обучения своего ребенка.

Закончить текст или сочинение об образовании в Великобритании помогут такие слова:

The United Kingdom has been a learning center for the last 1000 years and has many ancient and distinguished universities.
Соединенное Королевство было учебным центром на протяжении последних 1000 лет и имеет много древних и выдающихся университетов.

Holidays in Great Britain

Праздники в Великобритании еще одна тема для написания текста или рассказа.

Текст о праздниках в Великобритании:

Текст на английском Перевод
Christmas: December 25th. Certainly in the month of December Great Britain gives its best by combining the Christian culture with the most ancient Celtic tradition. For example, it is easy to meet in the streets children’s choirs singing Christmas carols and twigs of mistletoe and holly, which for the ancient priests were a sign of immortality. Рождество — 25 декабря. Конечно, в декабре месяце Соединенное Королевство приложит все усилия, объединяя христианскую культуру с древнейшей кельтской традицией. Например, на улицах легко встретить детские хоры, поющие рождественские гимны и веточки омелы и падуба, которые для древних священников были признаком бессмертия.
In Great Britain nothing unnecessary should be left in the house the first day of the year, not even the trash, also it is said that the first male person who will enter the front door will bring good luck. В Великобритании ничего лишнего не нужно оставлять в доме в первый день года, даже в мусорном ведре, также говорится, что первый мужчина, который войдет во входную дверь, принесет удачу.
St. George: 23 April. Day of the Patron Saint of England. On this day citizens of Great Britain wear a red rose in honor of their patron. Св. Георгий: 23 апреля. День святого покровителя Англии. В этот день граждане носят красную розу в честь своего покровителя.
Easter in Great Britain and throughout the United Kingdom is without a doubt one of the most meaningful Christian holidays. From England to Ireland, from Wales to Scotland, Easter is honored with a myriad of rituals, customs, special and interesting folk events. Пасха в Англии и во всем Соединенном Королевстве, без сомнения, является одним из самых значимых христианских праздников. Из Англии к Ирландии, от Уэльса до Шотландии, Пасха удостоена множества ритуалов, обычаев, особых и интересных народных событий.
Spring Festival (Last Monday of May). Great Britain, influenced by the Celts, relates the spring equinox to a sequence of events aimed at propitiating the “new beginning”. It is the ceremony that celebrates Ostara, the Germanic goddess of productivity, to whom one is directed for a good harvest. Весенний фестиваль (последний понедельник мая). Соединенное Королевство, под влиянием кельтов, связывает весеннее равноденствие с последовательностью событий, направленных на умиротворение «нового начала». Это церемония, посвященная Остаре, германской богине производительности, которая направляет к хорошему урожаю.
The English Labor Day in Great Britain throws its roots into an ancient tradition that of the peasants to gather in May in the town square where dances and songs celebrated the fertility of the land and the abundant work by dancing around the May Pole, hoisted in the center of the square. Английский День Труда имеет корни в древней традиции; крестьяне собираются в мае на городской площади, танцами и песнями отмечают плодородие земли и обильную работу, танцуя вокруг Майского дерева, поднятого в центре площади.
Bank Holidays in Great Britain. There are eight (in the periods of May, August, Christmas and Saint Stephen, New Year and Easter) whose dates vary from year to year. Банковские праздники. Их восемь (в мае, августе, Рождество и Святой Стефан, Новый год и Пасха), чьи даты варьируются от года к году.
Boxing Day (St. Stephens Day): December 26th. In the nineteenth century, wealthy English families gave their employees gifts received at Christmas which were not to their liking. День подарков (День Святого Стефана): 26 декабря. В девятнадцатом веке богатые английские семьи дарили своим работниками подарки, полученные на Рождество, которые им не нравились.
The school calendar in Great Britain varies from year to year and is different depending on the school. Specifically, there are differences between local state schools and private schools. Traditionally there are three quarters in Great Britain, with short half-term holidays and a longer summer break. Школьный календарь варьируется от года к году и отличается в зависимости от школы. В частности, существуют различия между местными государственными школами и частными школами. Традиционно есть три четверти, с короткими полусрочными праздниками и более длинным летним перерывом.

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Sports in Great Britain

Текст на английском Перевод
A cultural element that should not be underestimated in Great Britain is that of a sport. In general. The whole United Kingdom is particularly interested in the sporting tradition but in England, tradition is combined with excellence. Культурный элемент, который нельзя недооценивать в Англии, – это спорт. В целом, все Соединенное Королевство особенно интересуется спортивными традициями, но в Англии традиции сочетаются с превосходством.
Without a doubt, football is among the sports in Great Britain. The English Championship is run by the Football Association and is the oldest club football league in the world: it was first played in 1888-1889 even though the English Football Association was founded in 1863. Без сомнения, футбол является одним из английских видов спорта. Чемпионат по футболу возглавляет Футбольная ассоциация и является самой старой клубной футбольной лигой в мире: его впервые сыграли в 1888-1889 годах, хотя Английская футбольная ассоциация была основана в 1863 году.
Second sport in terms of fans is Rugby. The administrative body of Rugby in Great Britain is the Rugby Football Union (RFU) and its offices are located in Twickenham and Middlesex. Второй спорт с точки зрения болельщиков — регби. Административным органом регби в Англии является Футбольный союз регби, а его офисы расположены в Твикенхеме и Миддлсексе.
Definitely, the most autochthonous sport in Britain is Cricket. It is a very old sport, played between two teams of eleven players. Определенно, самым автохтонным видом спорта в Англии является Крикет. Это очень старый вид спорта, в который играют две команды из одиннадцати игроков.
Among the most followed sports in Great Britain, there is the Golf. In reality, sport originated in Scotland in the fifteenth century but later spread throughout Great Britain. Среди самых популярных видов спорта в Англии Гольф. В действительности спорт возник в Шотландии в пятнадцатом веке, но позже распространился по всей Великобритании.
Britain is lucky to have one of the world’s leading tennis tournaments, Wimbledon. Wimbledon is in June when there is the best weather in the UK. It is traditional for spectators to eat strawberries with cream while watching the matches. Англии повезло с одним из ведущих теннисных турниров мира, Уимблдоном. Уимблдон проходит в июне, когда в Великобритании лучшая погода. Для зрителей традиционно есть клубнику со сливками, наблюдая за матчами.
We talk about equitation as “The sport of Kings”. The Queen of Great Britain is a big fan of horse riding and she herself owns some racehorses. It always takes part in the Royal Ascot, the main event of the year; in fact, it has taken the attribute “royal” for this very reason. Мы говорим о верховой езде как «Королевском спорте». Королева – большой поклонник верховой езды, и она сама владеет скаковыми лошадьми. Она всегда принимает участие в Королевском Аскоте, главном событии года; на самом деле он получил название «королевский» именно по этой причине.
In the early eighteenth century, the English boxer James Figg (1695-1740) conceived boxing as a sport where it was more important to defend one than to attack. В начале восемнадцатого века английский боксер Джеймс Фигг (1695-1740) задумал бокс как спорт, где было более важно защититься, чем атаковать.
Loughborough University means the best sport in Great Britain and one of the best in the world. It has an Olympic pool, two gymnastic and sports centers, fields for rugby, hockey, and cricket. Университет Лафборо означает лучший спорт в Великобритании и один из лучших в мире. Он имеет олимпийский бассейн, два гимнастических и спортивных центра, поля для регби, хоккей и крикет.
The Royal London Yacht Club, established in 1838, is one of the oldest and most prestigious yacht clubs in Britain. Королевский лондонский яхт-клуб, основанный в 1838 году, является одним из старейших и престижных яхт-клубов Великобритании.
For sailing enthusiasts, there are countries that seem to know forever, because they are inextricably linked to the history of this sport. One of these is certainly Great Britain and in particular, the coasts that overlook the Channel and the Atlantic, where there are famous ports such as Plymouth or Southampton, not to mention the Isle of Wight, theater of prestigious competitions. Для поклонников парусного спорта есть страны, которые, кажется, известны всегда, так как они неразрывно связаны с историей этого вида спорта. Одной из них, безусловно, является Великобритания и, в частности, берега, выходящие на Канал и Атлантику, где есть знаменитые порты, такие как Плимут или Саутгемптон, не говоря уже об Острове Уайта.

Текст про Лондон на английском

Мост в Лондоне

Текст на английском Перевод
London is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world, if not perhaps the most cosmopolitan. London has always been a cosmopolitan city, since its Roman origins. The capital of Great Britain was born and raised under the sign of a multi-ethnic society. It may seem like a cliché, but walking through the streets of London is easy to realize how difficult it is to meet British passers-by in London, while it will be much more likely to meet Italians, Spaniards, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Germans, French, Norwegians, Brazilians, Australians etc. Лондон — один из самых космополитических городов в мире, если не самый космополитический. Лондон всегда был космополитическим городом, начиная с его римского происхождения. Современная столица Соединенного Королевства родилась и выросла под знаком многоэтнического общества. Это может показаться клише, но прогуливаясь по улицам Лондона легко понять, как сложно встретить настоящих британцев в Лондоне, тогда как гораздо больше шансов повстречаться с итальянцами, испанцами, японцами, китайцами, корейцами, немцами, французами, норвежцами, бразильцами, австралийцами и т. д.
London has been for centuries a magnet for creative minds. From William Shakespeare to Jimi Hendrix and J.K. Rowling, all the best in the art world was inspired by London. It still attracts the best talents of art, theater, musicals, but also comedians and greats of contemporary literature. Лондон веками был магнитом для творческих умов. От Уильяма Шекспира до Джими Хендрикса и Дж. К. Роулинг, все лучшее в мире искусства вдохновлялось Лондоном. Он по-прежнему привлекает лучшие таланты искусства, театра, мюзиклов, но также комиков и великих людей современной литературы.
London moves at the rhythm of its own music. From Ed Sheeran and Adele to Beatles and Rolling Stones, England has produced an infinite number of artists who have made the history of international music. Лондон движется в ритме собственной музыки. От Эд Ширан и Адель до Битлз и Роллинг Стоун Англия породила бесконечное количество музыкантов, которые делали историю международной музыки.
The capital of music, of young fashion, of the trend in general. It all started with the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and the Mary Quant miniskirts. Even today it is a point of reference. Notting Hill, East London, Kensington, and Abbey Road: times have changed, but the charm continues to be unique. Столица музыки, молодой моды, тренда в целом. Все началось с «Битлз», «Роллин Стоун» и мини-юбок Мэри Куант. Даже сегодня это точка отсчета. Ноттинг-Хилл, Ист-Лондон, Кенсингтон и Эбби-роуд: времена изменились, но обаяние по-прежнему остается уникальным.
The city boasts numerous summer music festivals, including the British Summer Time Festival at Hyde Park and Wireless at Finsbury Park. В городе проходят многочисленные летние музыкальные фестивали, в том числе фестиваль летнего времени в Гайд-парке и Wireless в парке Финсбери.
The National Portrait Gallery and Tate Britain are home to famous collections of classical art, while the Tate Modern is internationally renowned for modern art. When the sun is shining, walk the streets and enjoy the city’s markets, which are of all shapes and sizes and sell curious and wonderful products: they are a great way to get to know London. Национальная портретная галерея и Тейт – место собрания знаменитых коллекций классического искусства, а современная галерея Тейт всемирно известна современным искусством. Когда солнце сияет, гуляйте по улицам и наслаждайтесь рынками города, которые имеют все формы и размеры и продают любопытные и замечательные продукты: они – отличный способ познакомиться с Лондоном.
There will not even be two evenings equal to each other in London. Try the newest and trendiest bars and restaurants in East London, go dancing in the legendary London nightclubs or go to a concert of the best London bands or go and see the big names of the theater in Soho or Shoreditch. В Лондоне ни один вечер не похож на другой. Испытайте самые новые и модные бары и рестораны в Ист-Лондоне, потанцуйте в легендарных ночных клубах Лондона или посетите концерты лучших лондонских групп или посетите знаменитые театры в Сохо или Шордитче.
London is home to international designers such as Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, its stores and renowned fashion schools make it an international fashion center along with Paris, Milan and New York. Лондон является домом для международных дизайнеров, таких как Вивьен Вествуд, Гальяно, Стелла Маккартни, Маноло Бланик и Джимми Чу; его магазины и знаменитые школы моды, которые делают его международным центром моды наряду с Парижем, Миланом и Нью-Йорком.
You may have heard of the English Royal Family, they are a fairly important subject in Great Britain, especially in London, where the odds of seeing the Royal Family are always very high. Take a stroll along The Mall, the famous three-lane boulevard that leads to Buckingham Palace. Here, you can witness the pompous British royal tradition of changing the guard. Возможно, вы слышали об английской королевской семье, это довольно важный субъект в Англии, особенно в Лондоне, где шансы увидеть королевскую семью всегда очень высоки. Прогуляйтесь по Мэлл, знаменитому бульвару с тремя полосами, который ведет в Букингемский дворец. Здесь вы можете наблюдать помпезную британскую королевскую традицию смены караула.
The city’s parks, like the city itself, are full of surprises: they host zoos, outdoor theaters, and swimming pools. Парки города, как и сам город, полны сюрпризов: в них размещаются зоопарки, открытые театры и бассейны.
The cuisine of Great Britain may be the subject of many jokes but you will be pleasantly surprised by what London has to offer. The elegant restaurants, the delicious food of the stalls and the experimental dishes in particular environments all contribute to the international cuisine of London. Which does not mean that you cannot find a full English breakfast or a Sunday roast: just go into a traditional cafe or pub with a kitchen to taste the English specialties! Английская кухня может быть предметом многих шуток, но вы будете приятно удивлены тем, что может предложить. Лондон. Элегантные рестораны, вкусная еда в киосках и экспериментальные блюда в определенных условиях – все вносят вклад в международную кухню Лондона. Это не означает, что вы не можете найти полноценный английский завтрак или воскресное жаркое: просто зайдите в традиционное кафе или паб с кухней, чтобы отведать блюда английской кухни!
You could spend a lifetime exploring the city and it would never stop surprising you. From Camden to Kensington, passing through every other place, the different districts of London have a particular personality. Вы могли бы потратить всю жизнь на изучение города, и он никогда не перестанет удивлять вас. От Камдена до Кенсингтона, проходя через другие места, разные районы Лондона обладают особой индивидуальностью.
To those who were about to visit London for the first time, and maybe arrive there in the late at night, I highly recommend taking the Jubilee line and getting off at Westminster. The show that will stand before your eyes at the exit of the Tube will leave you breathless: the Big Ben and the wonderfully illuminated Parliament, immersed in the typical London atmosphere characterized by black taxis and red double-decker buses, will completely capture you. Тем, кто только собирается в Лондон в первый раз, и, возможно, приедет туда поздно вечером, я настоятельно рекомендую сесть в метро на Юбилейной линии и выйти на станции Вестминстер. Зрелище, которое предстанет перед глазами на выходе из Трубы, заставит затаить дыхание: Биг Бен и волшебно освещенный парламент, погруженный в типичную лондонскую атмосферу, с черными такси и красными двухэтажными автобусами, полностью пленят вас.


Тексты на английском языке про Great Britain с переводом на русский, рассмотренные в статье, станут отличными помощниками тем, кто не знает о чем написать или рассказать и познакомят с главными особенностями страны.