Most scientists today believe that our humanity separated from apes prior to around seven million years in central Africa, where the hominids in a span of next five million years went into an adventure across the globe .
Following recent surprising research by University of Toronto, scientists tend to believe that human ancestors actually lived in present-day Balkans. In studies published in the New Scientist magazine they cited a study of the found Bulgarian and Greek fossils. According to these studies, the most mysterious of ancient European apes actually was a human ancestor – hominin.
Bulgarian scientists have discovered a tooth of an ape which is old seven million years. According to scientific knowledge, Europe before 12 million years ago was a paradise for apes. However, they began to disappear about ten million years ago when that part of the world dramatically changed its climatic conditions.
“Two apelike creature fossils with teeth like a human were found in Bulgaria and Greece, and their age is set at 7.2 million years” according to the British Telegraph
After that, apes mostly remained confined to Africa, where they were distributed to several species such as gorillas, chimpanzees and humans.
In 2012, Nikolaj Spasov head of the National Natural History Museum in Sofia, and his colleagues have discovered a tooth of an ape and claimed it to be the youngest fossil of its kind ever found in Europe.
“This study changes the idea about time and place in which they made the first human steps” says Professor Nikolay Spasov, a member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
Chimpanzees are considered the closest human relatives. Scientists claim that these apes and humans separated before 5-7,000,000 years, after which the first early humans evolved in Africa.
But, according to new research experts from Germany, Bulgaria, Greece and Canada, this kind of separation took place in the east of the Mediterranean, not Africa.
The findings are described in study published in PLOS ONE titled “Messinian age and savannah environment of the possible hominin Graecopithecus from Europe.”
“The food grekopitekus ate is more associated with vegetation of dry savanna, unlike today’s great apes that live in the forests. That is why, like a man, grekopitekus had broad molars and thick tooth. This is, to some extent, the discovery of a missing link in evolution chain” says Spasov.
Bulgarian scientists, as well as their German and Canadian colleagues believe that a tooth found in Bulgaria belongs apes / Graecopithecus Freuberghi /, who continued to live in Europe for a long time after the other apes have disappeared from the continent.
“El Grekov face will probably look like a big ape with short fangs” adds Spasov.
They believe that the ape was – hominin. This type of apes scientists believe was the most mysterious of all European apes, besides of this one, not much is left of their fossil remains.
Презентация English английский Иностранные языки и языкознание Размещено: 17.08.2017
The main theories in the field of human origin, their basic content and direction of research. Basic stages of human development from the primitive to the modern form of the form. Character change erectus skeleton human time frame of the process.
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My Acquaintance With Africa Essay, Research Paper
My Acquaintance With Africa
I thought I knew enough about Africa, this wonderful and strange continent with a hot tropical climate and a wealthy nature, which is populated by many different nations and tribes. I saw many movies, mostly about African nature and often read newspapers or magazines about frequent wars and economical problems. But I never made acquaintance with people who originated from Africa. Thus, it was really interesting to talk, even if a little to my classmate Kadra, who not long ago, two years, came here from the small East African country Djibouti. I was interested in how she has lived and thought and what problems have worried this young, beautiful black woman.
In the period of two years, since I came from Ukraine and have lived in Chicago, I have known six or seven Afro-Americans. Although we worked together we had never talked about their problems. Maybe, it isn?t done among the black people, all the more among the Americans. So, I really know nothing about native Africans. No wonder I always thought they are very poor, not well educated and cut away from world civilization. It was a big surprise when Kadra told me that she finished high-school in her motherland and what?s more in French, which is the second, after her native Arabic, official language in Djibouti. Kadra speaks English sufficiently, clearly expresses her thoughts and doesn?t stop to find the suitable words as I often do. She plans to continue going to college in order to get a degree in English, find a better job and probably go back to motherland where she can teach English to her compatriots.
Of course, Kadra told me about her native country Djibouti, which I know nothing about. It is a beautiful country located on the East coast of Africa, on the shore of the Red Sea. The territory, divided into a low coastal plain, with mountains behind, and an interior plateau, is arid, sandy, and desolate. The climate is generally hot and dry. Two main ethnic groups, Somali and Afar, live there and almost all people profess the Muslim faith. It?s a republic and the head of state is a president. The economy is a weak development and people often go to other countries hoping to find a job.
I was interested that people in Djibouti are mainly Muslim, to whom I never talked before. So I began to ask questions about this topic and discovered the huge, mysterious, and alien Islamic world. It seems to me religion has great importance for Kadra; it is her spiritual universe, it?s like her second ?I?. It is strange that in the USA, with its furious rate of life, with its interlacing of nations, cultures, religions and as a result- a prevailing ideology of idealism, on the top of which is ?I? and ?myself?, Kadra continues to live in her closed Muslim world. I found many new things in her world and heard about the customs and laws ascribed to respect and help older people and parents. Muslims are not allow drinking alcohol, never using drugs and are faithful in marriage. I found that Islam allows getting divorced, if a man or woman doesn?t love anymore. It changed my assumption about a woman in the Islamic world as a slave who carries her own cross to the end of her life. On the other hand, I have understood, or to be more specific, I felt how dangerous and awful is Islam. Since childhood Kadra has followed Muslim laws, gone to the Muslim school and known only this world because she lived among people who blindly submitted to Islam?s canons. When I asked her how her world outlook has changed for the last two years and how she imagines her future life here, in the USA, I was shocked by her firmness to live further in the Muslim world and her confidence that nothing can change. At first it seems she, as do most of us, works, goes to college, and drives a car. From the outside she looks like everyone, nothing particular, but what acts in this young soul, as though the black darkness covers her. I had this feeling when he told me her husband, relatives and all her friends are Muslims and only among them she has found happiness. Then I noticed she talks with hardly hidden disgust to other people (I understood that for her the ?other? means the people not other race, nation or culture, but who don?t profess her religion). She truly believes Muslim is the best religion and all people must go only this way. Also she believes she will keep her religion not only for herself but also for her future children and the American way won?t change them. When I question her about the assimilation, she had no idea about that, but she was unflinching in her belief when I explained to her what it is. What godly innocence and desperate firmness!
Very often I have thought about the main point of a life and long ago I made the conclusion that the main in this world is a human with her/his willingness to know a new and property to a selfimproving. How interesting it is to discover something new and how thrilling to communicate with other people from different countries, and with other races, religions and cultures. So, I think about Kadra, about her tragedy- to live in such free, interesting country as is the USA and voluntarily keep herself in the dark world of the Muslim. But I never stop to hope that the fresh wing of change will touch her and that she will open her eyes and heart, and finally find her really happy place in the blessed Washington land.
- усвоить и пополнить лексический объем языка
- совершенствовать процесс коммуникативного
обучения английскому языку.
Обеспечивать первичную отработку лексики по
теме: “Изучение прошлого”.
Совершенствовать речевое умение с
использованием модели говорения “от чтения
текста к последующему обсуждению на основе
предложенных упражнений на понимание
Формировать умение правильного использования
слов с близким значением.
Развивать умение на слух воспринимать и
воспроизводить прослушанную информацию.
Познакомить учащихся с употреблением
модальных глаголов, выражающих степени
вероятности в прошлом.
Развивать умение вести короткие диалоги с
правильным использованием выражений с
глаголами “to do | to make”
- Организация класса.
- Обучение лексической стороне речи.
- Совершенствование основных коммуникативных
явлений (чтение, аудирование, говорение).
- Формирование умения распознавать слова с
- Совершенствование навыков в письменной речи.
- Обучеие грамматической стороне речи.
I. Организация класса.
Сообщение целей, задач и плана работы на уроке.
II. Обучение лексической стороне речи.
Ознакомление учащихся с новыми лексическими
единицами / словосочетаниями по теме:
Evidence – свидетельство
Rugged lands – суровые земли
Rhinoceros tusk – бивень мамонта
Glacial times – время оледенения
Hemisphere – полушарие
Entombed – погребен
Via – через
Artifact – артефакт, предмет материальной культуры
III. Совершенствование основных
Совершенствование навыков чтения:
Read the article and check your guesses
New evidence found by Russian archaeologists suggests that humans may have lived in the
rugged lands of Arctic Siberia much earlier than previously thought. The discovery of
central hunting tools along the Yana River in central Siberia has added at least another
15,000 tears to the previous date. Human occupation of this area could now go as far back
as 30,000 years ago.
Dr Vladimir Pitulko of St Petersburg led a team of scientists who discovered the site.
Uncovered were stone and ivory tools which included spear tips made of rhinoceros horn and
mammoth tusk. The surprise findings indicate that humans were able to survive in harsh
conditions during glacial times in this particular part of Siberia while the east of the
Northern Hemisphere was entombed in ice.
Scientists are also trying to make connections between the existence of these humans in
Siberia and the Clovis who are considered the first humans in North America. The
similarity of the tools found in both areas suggests the possibility that at some point
the people in Siberia made their way across from Asia to the Americas. Some scientists see
this as evidence to explain the peopling of the Americas via Bering Land Bridge.
Read the text again and decide whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F)
|1 Archaeologists found traces of ancient people in the |
South of Siberia.
|2 The hunting tools of prehistoric people were made of |
|3 The discovery suggests that people lived in Siberia |
much earlier than previously thought.
|4 The first humans were not able to live in really |
|5 The discovery will help scientists understand how |
Americans continents became inhabited.
|6 The first inhabitants of north America might have |
come from Siberia.
IV. Распознавание слов с одинаковым значением:
Match the words that are close in meaning with the correct definitions:
Invention (1) or
Tools (1) or
or research (2)?
V. Совершенствование письменной речи:
– Choose three expressions from the three columns and write a sentence using do or
|a discovery||one’s best||someone’s homework|
|a telephone call||nothing||the washing up|
|an effort||plans||a decision|
|good||a cup of tea||an excellent job|
|the cooking||some work|
|your hair||an exercise|
VI. Обучение аудированию:
Listen to the short dialogues and fill in the missing expressions with do and make:
1 – Oh, this table is so uncomfortable!
– It is a traditional country table. My great-grandfather … then he built the house.
2 – Shall I help you in the garden?
– Yes, please, I’d like you…
3 – I’ll …
– Oh, no, thanks, but I’d like some coffee, please
4 – Do you like the place you’re staying at?
– Not very much, actually. There’s … around here – it’s really boring.
5 – Have you … yet?
– No, actually, I’ve decided to … first.
6 – Does anyone help you with the housework?
– Yes, a man comes in once a week…
7 – Let me help you …
– No, that’s all right. We’ve got a dishwasher.
8 – What’s going on? Could you please stop …
– I’m terribly sorry, but we’re preparing for tomorrow’s performance.
9 – Remember … before you leave for school!
– I will.
10 – I feel terrible because he was so rude to me yesterday.
– Calm down! You’re … . You’re just being oversensitive!
– Work in pairs. Try to dramatize these short dialogues
VII. Обучение грамматической стороне:
Let’s take grammar material: modal verbs – expressing degrees of probability in the
may / might
can / could
can’t / couldn’t
to say if something was true, probable, possible or impossible in the past.
|People must have lived in Siberia in prehistoric |
|Должно быть, люди жили в |
Сибири в доисторическое время
|You are absolutely certain that something is true.||99%|
|People may / might have lived in Siberia in |
|Вероятно, люди жили в |
Сибири в доисторическое время
|You think something has a good possibility of being |
|People can / could have lived in Siberia in |
|Возможно, люди жили в |
Сибири в доисторическое время
|There is a possibility that something is true. |
|People can’t / couldn’t have lived in |
Siberia in prehistoric times.
|Не может быть, чтобы люди |
жили в Сибири в доисторическое время
|You are absolutely certain that something is NOT true.||0%|
Use must, may / might, can / could or can’t / couldn’t plus the correct form of the
verb in these sentences.
- Where was Peter yesterday? He … (be) at school. The school year started a week ago.
- I’m absolutely sure! They … (arrive) yesterday. I saw their tickets.
- The course … (begin) on the fifth of September but I’m not so certain about it.
- Are you joking! Nick … (go) to Moscow last week. He’s supposed to be at work now.
- They … (come from) London, but I’m not sure.
- We … (take) the wrong turn. We should be there by now.
- They … (miss) their train. Otherwise they would be here by now.
- It … (be) Masha who answered the phone because she’s away.
- I can’t find my cat anywhere. She … (get out) through the window.
The opening is too small.
Mini project: Discovering ancient civilizations
Topics: Ancient people in Russia, Ancient China, Celtic art, Excavation in Troya, Have
all people originated from Africa?