Russia is one of the largestcountries in the world. It occupies about one-seventh part of dry land. It issituated in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million squarekilometres. The country is washed by seas and oceans. There are different typesof climate on the territory of the country. It is very cold in the North evenin summer. The central part of the country has mild climate: winters are cold,springs and autumns are warm or cool, summers are hot and warm. In the Souththe temperature usually is above zero all year round, even in winter. Summer isreally hot, the climate is very favourable. The climate of Siberia iscontinental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold.
Some parts of our country are coveredwith mountains and hills.
There are many rivers in Russia, thelongest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. Thedeepest lakes are the Baikal and the Ladoga. The water of the lake Baikal isthe purest in the world.
The Russian Federation is very richin mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron. gold and others.
Russia borders on many countries.Among them are Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea.
Moscow is the capital of our country.It was founded in 1147. It is a nice city. There are many places of interest inMoscow. You can see many museums, art galleries, theatres and monuments in ourcapital. People of our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are alsomany big beautiful cities in Russia.
The population of Russia is about 150million people. 83 per cent of the population are Russians. 70 per cent of thepopulation live in cities.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and mostbeautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modem centre now. The population ofthe city is about 9 million people. Moscow is a political centre, where thegovernment of our country works.
Moscow was founded in 1147 by YuriDolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square kilometres.
We say that Moscow is a port of fiveseas, as the Moscow-Volga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspianand Black seas and the Sea of Azov.
Moscow is an industrial centre too.There are many factories and plants in it. One of the best known plants isLikhachev Automobile plant, which produces many lorries.
Moscow is a cultural centre. One cansee the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are a lot of theatres,museums, libraries and cinemas in Moscow. The Bolshoi Theatre is one of thefamous theatres all over the world.
If you are fond of painting you cango to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see alot of interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say the Tretyakov ArtGallery is a treasure-house of Russian art.
Young people like to visit theCentral Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents there.
There are many fine buildings, widestreets, green parks, large squares and monuments in Moscow.
It is necessary to mention suchfamous monuments as monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin andto the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov. Visiting the capital a lot of foreignersfrom all over the worid come to see these monuments.
One of the highest buildings inMoscow is the State Moscow University. It was founded in 1755 by the greatscientist Mikhail Lomonosov.
Transport». Moscow is a very big cityand its transport must be comfortable and fast.
One can see a lot of cars, buses,trolley-buses, trams in the streets of our city. The Moscow metro began itswork on the 15th of May, 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now it has151 stations. Our metro is a beautiful and convenient one.
There are nine railway stations inMoscow and some airports around the city.
There are many stadiums in Moscow.The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches areheld there.
The Olympic village was built for the22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It is a big complex for sport games.
Moscow is the capital of our country.Moscow was founded in 1147 by Prince Yuri Dolgorukyi. Now Moscow has become thelargest political, economic and administrative centre of the country. It is oneof the world’s cultural, scientific and art centres.
Moscow is situated on both sides ofthe Moskva river. The heart of Moscow is Red Square and the Kremlin. Thehighest towers of the Kremlin are crowned with ruby stars. The main and tallestof the Kremlin towers is the Spasskaya tower. People all over the countrylisten to the Kremlin Chimes on the Spasskaya Tower. The Bell Towers of Ivanthe Great built in the 15th century have twenty-two large bells and over thirtysmall ones. Thousands of tourists admire the majestic beauty of the red-brickwalls and towers of the Kremlin, the fantastic beauty of St.Basil’s Cathedral,a masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture. In front of the Cathedralthere’s a monument to Minin and Pozharsky. The cathedrals, palaces andbuildings of the Kremlin are remarkable museums containing unique collectionsof rare things.
In fact, Moscow is famous all overthe world for its museums and galleries. Among them most well-known is thePushkin Museum of Fine Arts which houses a wonderful collection of worldpainting and sculpture and the Tretyakov Picture gallery with its mastespiecesof Russian pictorial art. In Moscow there are a lot of exhibition halls,palaces of culture, libraries and theatres. Among the world famous BolshoiTheatre, Taganka Theatre, The Kremlin Theatre and others are numerous studioesand amateur theatres which have gained popularity among the spectators. Manytourists enjoy the magnificent building of the University which is situated onthe Lenin Hills. The Moscow Metro is not only a comfortable, rapid and economicmeans of travelling but also one of the tourists’ attractions. It’s rightlyconsidered to be the most beautiful in the world.
THE UNITEDKINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The United Kingdom is situated in thenorthwest coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north andnorth-west and the North Sea on the east.
The U.K. includes Great Britain andNorthern Ireland.
Great Britain, the largest island inEurope, contains England, Scotland and Wales.
The United Kingdom has an area of94,249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is theofficial language.
The population of the U.K. is nearly60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and theirsuburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million peoplelive in England. Over 3 million — in Wales. A little over 5 million — inScotland. About 1,5 million in Northern Ireland. London’s population is over 7million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, theWelsh and the Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in theUnited Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild.It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England.Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only inthe North and West of the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat,but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country havebeautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river isthe Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longestriver is Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities,colleges, libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universitiesare Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.
The U.K. is a parliamentary monarchy.The British Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the Houseof Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The mainpolitical parties of Great Britain are the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, theConservative Party. The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded in 1920.It is a party of the working people.
The United Kingdom has few mineralresources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom isone of the world’s most industrialized countries. The main industrialcentres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. Thelargest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester. Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin.
Agriculture takes an important sectorin economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables,oats.
THE UNITEDKINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The United Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands and about 5 thousandsmall islands, called the British Isles, to the North-West of Europe.
The larger island is Great Britainwhich consists of three раrt.
England, Scotland, and Wales, and thesmaller is Ireland. Southern Ireland now called Eire or the Irish Republic, isindependent of the United Kingdom. The British Isles cover an area of about 95000 square miles. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the EnglishChannel, the narrower part of it is called the Strait of Dover.
The country is washed by the AtlanticOcean, the North Sea, the Irish Sea. The shallow waters of the North and theIrish Seas provide good f ishing grounds. Fishing therefore is very important.
Mountains are an important featyre ofthe geography of the country. There are mountain chains in Scotland, Wales andNorth-West England, but they are not very high. North-West England is alsofamous for its beautiful lakes.
The rivers of Great Britain are notvery long but usually deep and never freeze in winter. The longest and deepestrivers are the Severn and Mersey, the Thames on which stands the capital ofGreat Britain — London.
Lying in the middle latitudes andsurrounded by waters Britain has a mild and temperate climate. The climate ofthe British Isles is generally classified as cool, temperate, though in theHighlands of Scotland it is severe. The best season for the English people isspring when everything is in full bloom, there is much sunshine and it israther warm. Autumn and winter are famous for their fogs and rains. In bigindustrial cities fog turns into «smog» (smoke + fog). It is a veryunpleasant time. The usual temperature in winter very seldom falls below 3-5degrees Centigrade. The weather in Great Britain is very changeable, there maybe all kinds of weather within orte day, that is why practically every talk theEnglish people begin with comments on the weather.
Britain is a state with a highlydeveloped industry. It is one of the most poweerful capitalist countries inEurope. Great Britain is also one of the largest exporters of manufacturedgoods. At the same time it imports metal, oil, grain, meat, fruit, tea andother raw materials and foodstuffs.
The largest cities and most importantindustrial centres of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool,Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Edinburgh.
London, the capital, is one of themost important industrial centres. Lots of things such as clothes, foodstuffs,cars, aircrafts, instruments, medical equipment are produced in and aroundLondon. It is also the biggest port.
Birmingham is the centre of theproduction of machines, lorries, TV sets, radios, computers, steel industry,heavy engineering.
Manchester in the North-West ofEngland is the centre of the cotton textile industry, one of the Britain’s mostimportant producers of computers and electronic equipment, chemicals.
Ship-building is an importantindustry in the United Kingdom. The main ship-building centres are London,Glasgow in Scotland, Belfast in Northern Ireland and some others.
Oxford and Cambridge are not bigindustrial centres but they are famous all over the world as educationalcentres. The oldest and most famous universities of Great Britain are situatedthere. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and 13thcenturies and the Scottish Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh from 15th-16th centuries.
Oxford is international becausepeople from all over the world come to study there. Physics, chemistry,medicine, literature, biology, geography, agriculture are studied there.
The United Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland is a par-liamentary monarchy. Legislative power belongs tothe Queen (formally) and the Parliament, which consists of the House of Commonsand House of Lords. Officially the Head of the State is the Queen (from 1952-Elizabeth II). But the actual power belongs to the parliament and the rulingparty. The powers of the Queen are limited by the constitution.
There are three main parties on thepolitical scene of the United Kingdom. The Conservative Party, founded in 1867is the party supported traditionally by the rich: the monopolists andlandowners. This party serves the interests of big business. The supporters ofthe Liberal Party are small traders and middle class people.
The Labour Party was founded in 1906.It mostly consists of workers, but its activity and political tactics show thatit is a bourgeous party.
The Communist Party of Great Britainwas founded in 1920 as a fusion of the British Socialist Party. The Party fullyrepresents the interests of the working class.
London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is twothousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it is also ahuge port.
London is situated upon both banks ofthe Thames. There are 17 bridges above the river.
The population of London is about 9million people. London has three parts: the City of London, the West End, theEast End.
The City of London is the oldest partof London. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are manyoffices, firms and banks in this part of London. The City of London is thefinancial centre of the United Kingdom.
The West End is the centre of London.There are many places of interest in the West End. They are: the Houses ofParliament with Big Ben. It is interesting that the clock «Big Ben»came into service in 1859. Big Ben is the biggest clock bell in Britain. Itweighs 13,5 tons.
The other interesting place isWestminster Abbey, which was founded in 1050. It is situated in the centre ofLondon. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin andothers.
The official London residence of theQueen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.
There are many nice squares inLondon. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of the WestEnd. One can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square.
There are many museums, libraries andgalleries in London. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries inLondon. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was fond of paintings andcollected many pictures.
The British Museum is a veryinteresting place in London. It was founded in 1753. The library of this museumhas a lot of books.
The East End of London is thedistrict for the working people. There are many factories, workshops, docksthere.
There are many cars and buses inLondon. There is a tube (an underground) in London too. It is a nice one.
One can say that the City is themoney of London, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is the handsof London.
London is the capital of GreatBritain. The population of London is over 8 million people. It is one of thelargest cities of the world and the largest city of the United Kingdom. Londonis situated on the river Thames about forty miles from the mouth and is dividedinto two parts by the river: north and south. Fourteen bridges over the rivercarry heavy traffic from one side to the other.
The history of London goes back toRoman times. Due to favourable geographical position a small town soon becamean important trade centre. Actually, London can be divided into several parts.First there is the City of London. It is the financial and business centre ofGreat Britain. Only a few thousand people live there, but in the day-time it isfull of people: as about half of million people come to work there. The biggestBanks and offices are concentrated in the City. The East End, lying eastwardsfrom’ the City is very large, poor and crowded. The working class of London isconcentrated there. It is a district of docks, factories, poor little housesand narrow streets. This district of London suffered greatly during World WarII but carried on its work.
The West End makes a great contrastto the working district of London. It is full of richest hotels, largestsuper-markets, best cinemas and concert-halls. There are a lot of beatifullhouses and gardens. Only well-to-do people can live there.
Another important district of Londonis Westminster, where most of Government buildings are situated. WestminsterPalace is the seat of the British Parliament. The Towers of the Houses ofParliament stand high; above the city. On the highest tower there is thelargest clock in the country which is known to the whole world as Big Ben. Onecan hear Big Ben strike every quarter of an hour.
Not far away is Westminster Abbeywith its Poet’s Corner. Many English outstanding statesmen, painters, poetswere buried there. Among them Geoffrey Chaucer, the first English nationalpoet, world famous scientists I.Newton and Ch.Darwin, Tennison and others.
There in London one can find placeswith the names of W.Shakespeare, who lived and worked there for more thantwenty years, Karl Marx, who was buried in Highgate cemetery.
Every year many tourists come toLondon to see the places of interest. They make sightseeing tours of the City,visit the Trafalgar Square, the British Museum, the National Gallery. They alsovisit the most ancient historic monument dating back to Roman times: the Towerof London, which had been a fortress, a prison and a royal palace. Now it isone of the most interesting museums.
New Zealand is an independent state.It has a total area of 269,000 square kilometres. It is (situated to south-eastof Australia. Nearly 3,5 million people live in the country. The capital of NewZealand is Wellington. (It has been the capital since 1865). The officiallanguage is English. The climate of New Zealand is moist. New Zealand isrich in minerals. There are some main industries in the country, for example,iron and steel industry. The country has gas and petroleum. There are manymountains in New Zealand. The highest is Mount Cook (12349 feet). There are many rivers in the country. Thechief rivers are the Waikato and the Wairu. You can see many lakes in it. Youhave heard about the native animals in the country. One of them is the kiwi.This interesting bird lives in the wet parts of the thick bushes. In the daytime the bird does not go out It comes out only at night to find food. Kiwiscan not fly. Many years ago kiwis were hunted for food. Now the government doesnot permit the hunting of kiwis. The kiwi is now the symbol of the New Zealandpeople. Small children are often called kiwis.
New Zealand is a self-governingstate. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of Representatives.The Prime Minister is the head of the government
There are some political parties inNew Zealand. They are: the Labour Party, the National Party, the Party ofSocialist Unity and others.
New Zealand has heavy industry. Thereare many plants in the country. Paper and rubber industries are developed too.New Zealand exports apples and honey.
There are some big cities such asAuckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Nelson. Auckland, Dunedin, Wellington are the main ports of the country.
The capital of the country isWellington. It is a financial centre too. The city was founded in 1840.
There are some educational andcultural institutions in Wellington. They are the University of NewZealand, Victoria University College and others. Victoria University wasestablished in 1897.
New Zealand is a very interesting andbeautiful country.
THE UNITEDSTATES OF AMERICA
The USA is one of the largestcountries in the world. It is situated in the central part of the NorthAmerican continent. The area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres.It is washed by the Pacific Ocean and by the Atlantic Ocean.
The population of the United Statesis nearly 250 million people, most of the people live in towns. People ‘ofdifferent nationalities live in the USA.
There are a lot of rich people in theUSA. But the life of most coloured people is very difficult Some Americans livein poverty, many people can’t get work.
The official language of the countryis English.
The capital of the country isWashington. It was named in honour of the first President,. George Washington.As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in different regions ofthe country, for example, the Pacific coast is a region of mild winters andwarm, dry summers, but the eastern continental region is watered with rainfallThe region around the Great Lakes has changeable weather. There are manymountains in the USA. For example, the highest peak of the Cordilliers in theUSA is 4,418 metres.
The main river of the country is theMississippi. But there are many other great rivers in the USA: the Colorado inthe south and the Columbia in the north-west. There are five Great Lakesbetween the USA and Canada.
The USA produces more than 52% of theworld’s corn, wheat, cotton, tobacco.
There are many big cities in thecountry. They are Washington, (the capital of the country), New York (the cityof social contrasts, financial and business centre of the capitalist world),Boston (there are three universities in it), Chicago (one of the biggestindustrial cities in the USA), San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,Detroit (one of the biggest centres of the automobile industry), Hollywood (thecentre of the US film business).
The USA has an Academy of Sciences.There are many scientific institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and otherinteresting places in the country.
The USA is a highly developedindustrial country. The USA is rich in mineral resources, such as aluminium,salt, zinc, copper, cement and others. The country is rich in coal, naturalgas, gold and silver too. It holds the first place in the capitalist world forthe production of coal, iron, oil, natural gas.
Such industries as machine-building,shipbuilding are highly developed in the country.
American agriculture produces a lotof food products: grain, fruit, vegetables. The USA is the greatest capitalistcountry in the world. The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fiftystates.
Each of these states has its owngovernment. Congress is the American parliament which consists of two Chambers.
The president is the head of thestate and the government He is elected for four years. There are two mainpolitical parties in the USA. They are the Democratic Party (was organized inthe 1820s) and the Republican Party (was organized in the 1850s). The Communistparty of the USA was founded in Chicago in 1919. The youth movement is animportant factor in the political life of the USA.
Washington is the capital of theUnited States of America. The city is on the left bank of the Potomac River.The city was named after the first President George Washington. The population of the city is nearly three million people. There aremany beautiful parks and gardens in Washington. It is interesting to see thefamous cherry trees. These trees are the gift from Japan in 1912. There aremany libraries, museums, art galleries in the city, for example, you can seeThe National Gallery of Art. It was opened in 1941. It has a lot of artcollections by the great masters from the 14th to the 19th centuries. It is oneof the finest picture galleries in America. The NASA Museum is devoted to theUS Achievements in the exploration of Space.
The Capitol is the centre of thecity. The Capitol was built according to the ^lans of William Thomton. He wasan amateur architect. It was made of stone and marble and contains 540 rooms.It is situated on Capitol Hill. Capitol Hill is the highest place in the city.Topping the dome is the 19th foot bronze statue of Freedom. There is a law thatforbids to build houses higher than the Capitol. The Capitol is the seat ofCongress.
Congress consists of two Chambers:The Senate and the House of Representatives. From the Capitol to the White House runs Pennsylvania Avenue used for all processions and parades. The WhiteHouse is the place where the President of the USA lives and works. It is theofficial residence of the USA presidents.
This house was first occupied in1800. George Washington (1732-1799) died in 1799 and he did not live in thatHouse. John Adams was the first President who lived in that House.
The White House has 132 rooms.
The Metrorail system is an up-to-dateone in Washington. If you want to go by metro, you have to find the letter«M». The fare in metro is connected with the time of a day and thedistance of your travelling.
There are a lot of interesting placesin Washington. It is difficult to find a park or a square without a monument ora memorial. The Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument are the most -famousand nice ones.
The Lincoln memorial was dedicated onMemorial Day — May 30, 1922. It was built in the style of a classic Greektemple. It has 36 columns. Each column represents the state in the Union at thetime of Lincoln’s death. But the dominant feature of the building is therealistic figure of Lincoln.
The Washington Monument is one ofthe city’s most impressive sights. It is situated in Potonic Park. It waserected to the memory of the first President of the USA in 1888. It is called«The Pencil», because it is one of the tallest stone constructions inthe world and the tallest stone structure in the USA. This monument is over 555feet high. There is The Pentagon in Washington. It is a building and it wasbuilt between 1941-1943. Now it is the US military centre. A lot of people workthere.
Washington is a city almost withoutindustry.
One of the main cities of the UnitedStates of America is Philadelphia. It is situated in the east of the USA.
Now Washington is the capital of theUSA, but Philadelphia was the first capital of the United States of Americafrom 1790 till 1800. Many people consider that Philadelphia is an importantpolitical centre of the USA, because the USA constitution was the first writtenconstitution in the world adopted in this city in 1787 and the Declaration ofIndependence was proclaimed in 1776.
Philadelphia is a seaport and ashipping centre of the country too. It is an important manufacturing centre.Some branches of industry are developed in the city.
There are many places of interest inPhiladelphia, for example, the Independence National Historical Park. You cansee many monuments in it. If you want to leam the history of America you haveto leam something about the Liberty Bell. Now the Liberty Bell is a symbol offreedom. The sound of this Bell told the people about the first public readingof the Declaration of Independence. It was in July, 1776.
Philadelphia is one of the culturalcentres of the country. The Parkway is the cultural centre of Philadelphia. Youcan see the Philadelphia Museum of Art (great art museum of the world), Collegeof Art, Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Fine Arts there.
There are many hotels, theatres,shops and museums in Philadelphia.
There is the Pennsylvania Universityin Philadelphia. This University has an interesting and big library.
Philadelphia is a beautiful city withmany skyscrapers in it.
МБОУ «Семекеевская ООШ»
РЕФЕРАТ по теме:
Выполнил ученик 8 класса:
Фахертдинов Рамзил Расилович
Валиева Рамиля Рустамовна
2015 год, с.Семекеево.
Except for the United Kingdom there are some other countries in the world where people speak English and this language is one of the official languages. The largest and most important of them are the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
The United States of America was formed by emigrants in 1382. The USA makes up of 62 states. Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Rotomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn’t belong to any state but to all the states. All these states are sovereignty.
The territory of the United States of America is over 9 million square kilometres; this is one of the largest countries in the world. Its population is about 250 million people. People of various nationalities live in the USA: the English, the German, the Chinese, the Hindu, the Greek and so on.
The USA has 50 states. The flag of the USA has 13 red and white stripes, which symbolize the original 13 states. 50 stars on the blue field in the left upper corner are for each of the 50 states of the country in our days. The capital of the USA is Washington, D. C. (the District of Columbia). This city was named in honour of the first president, George Washington. Some of the biggest cities of the USA are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Francisco and others.
2. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of North America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA has borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico. The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area is a highland, central area is a plain and Western area is mountains including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huron, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario and Erie. They are connected by fast rivers. There is the most famous to the whole world fall called Niagara Fall. Mississippi together with its tributary Missouri is the longest river in the world.
Mountain ranges cross the country from north to south and don’t protect it against cold air from the north and warm one from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
4. National Economy.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals are solid base of development of Americans industry. Heavy industry prevails in USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering, chemical and high-tech industries. USA has also well-developed light industry which includes textile, tanning and footwear industries. The food industry is well developed too. Both animal husbandry and farming takes big place in the economy of the USA.
5. Political system
Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The Congress is vested with the legislative power and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the Senate.
The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to Congress, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years. The second person in executive branch is vice President. The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President
The judicial branch consists of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states.
Constitution is the most important document in the USA. Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and so on.
The USA as any other country has its own symbols, traditions and holidays
For example, the 4th of July, or Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day. The national symbol of America is the bald eagle. Another American symbol is Uncle Sam.
The world’s second-largest country is Canada. The total area of Canada equals to almost 10 million square kilometres. The climate in Canada isn’t mild. It has four very distinct seasons, it can be very hot in summer – to 35°C above zero and higher, and quite cold in winter – 25°C below zero and even colder. Though Canada is one of largest countries in the world, its population isn’t dense. There are only about 30 million people living in Canada which is very little if we compare the territory of Canada with the UK where 60 million people live.
Canada has two official languages – English and French. Many Canadians speak both languages very well. The leading cities of Canada are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. The official head of Canada is the Queen of the United Kingdom. But practically there is a Prime Minister of the Canadian government to rule the country. Besides Canada has a democratic parliament, which is situated in Ottawa and consists of the House of Commons and the Senate.
Official emblems of Canada are the beaver and the maple leaf. The colours of Canada are white and red.
1. The Commonwealth of Australia is a self governing federal state. It is situated in the south-west of the Pacific ocean, occupying the continent of Australia and a great number of islands of which Tasmania is the most important. Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian and the Pacific Oceans.
2. The country consists of 6 (six) states and 2 (two) territories. 16 million people live in Australia. The capital is Canberra. The official language is English.
3. Australia has a Parliament has two chambers, the house of Representatives and the Senate. the government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister.
4. Australia is not only far from the rest of the world, it has a bad climate, too. The climate is better in the east and south-east, where most big cities have grown-up. But the northern coast has too much rain, and the western coast is too dry.
5. The highest part of Australia, and almost all the mountains are near the coast. The whole central part of the country is dry; it never rains, there are no large rivers and no water there. So there is no very rich plant life in Australia, except in the east and south-east.
6. Australia is an important producer and exporter of primary products: wool, meat, sugar, fruit, black, coal, iron, copper, lead, gold and so on.
7. Most of the factories are situated near big cities. There are 5 (five) big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Bris bane. These cities are also the country’s main ports.
8. Canberra was specially planned as a capital. It is a quiet city. All the government buildings are situated there. There no industrial plants in the city. About 300000 people live in Canberra.
9. Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. It was founded in 1788. Sydney is a big industrial centre. About 3 million people now live in the city.
Australia – a continent and a state – is situated in the Southern Hemisphere, in the southern part of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is about 8 million square kilometers. Australia occupies the Tasmania Island and a number of smaller islands too. Australia is the sixth largest country in area. It has a wide climate range, from tropical in the north to temperate in the south-east.
Australia is divided into 8 administrative areas. The population of Australia equals to about 18 million people and 70 percent of them live in urban areas – in Sydney, Melbourne, Darwin, Perth, Adelaide and other large cities. The capital of Australia, Canberra, is not very large, but it is lovely.
Australia has a multicultural society. People of about 200 nationalities live there. The aborigines, the Australian natives, represent about 1.5 percent of the population.
The Australian flag is blue. There is the flag of the UK on the Australian banner, a large seven-pointed star beneath it and the Southern Cross constellation
The most popular Australian animals as well as informal Australian symbols are the koala, emu and kangaroo.
Another country in the Pacific Ocean where people speak English as an official language is New Zealand. It is located not far from Australia – only the Tasman Sea separates them by a distance of about 1,600 km. New Zealand occupies two large islands – the North Island and the South Island as well as numerous small islands. New Zealand isn’t very large in area.
New Zealand has a population of 3.8 million people. Many people live in urban areas, and about 50 percent of them live in the largest cities – Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, and Dunedin. The first of them is an important seaport and industrial centre. And Wellington is the capital of New Zealand.
New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. New Zealand stays in close association with the United Kingdom as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. And the formal head of the state is the Queen of the United Kingdom.
The New Zealand flag represents the Southern Cross, the stars of it are red with white edgings. The flag of the United Kingdom in the left upper corner shows the recognition to the historical foundations and the fact that New Zealand was once a British colony and dominion.
The national emblem of New Zealand is a flightless bird kiwi. And silver fern is a sporting emblem.
I’d like to tell you about another countries, where English is the official language. At first, the USA. After 350 years of development the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. The USA is the most powerful and highly developed country in the world. What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economical, political and military dominiance over other countries. Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land Canada is situated in North America. About 28 million people live in Canada.
Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. Canada’s people are varied. About 57% of all Canadians have some English ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people.
Australia is the only country in the world that is also a continent. It’s the sixth large country and the smallest continent. The country’s official name is Commonwealth of Australia. The Commonwealth of Australia is a federation of states. Australia has six states and two territories. Australia is a constitutional monarchy like Great Britain. The Britain monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is also queen of Australia and country’s head of state. But the queen has little power in the Australian government. New Zealand is an island country in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. New Zealand belongs to a large island group called Polynesia.
The country is situated on two main islands — the North Island and the South Island. Wellington is the capital of New Zealand. English is the official language of New Zealand and is spoken throughout the country. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. The British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is the monarch of New Zealand. Britain gave New Zealand a constitution in 1852.
New Zealand has one of the highest standard of living in the world. New Zealand’s economy depends on trade with many countries — Australia, Britain and the USA.
Другие англоязычные страны (перевод)
Я хочу рассказать о других странах, где английский является официальным языком. В первую очередь, это США. После 350-летнего развития Соединенные Штаты Америки все еще занимают лидирующую позицию в западном мире. США — наиболее мощная и высокоразвитая страна мира. Экономическое, политическое и военное превосходство над другими странами делает США лидером западного мира.
Канада — вторая по величине страна в мире. Только Россия имеет бблыную площадь. Канада находится в Северной Америке. Около 28 миллионов человек живут в Канаде. Канада — независимое государство. Но согласно конституционному акту 1982 года, британский монарх, королева Соединенного Королевства Елизавета II, признана королевой Канады. Население Канады разное. Около 57% канадцев имеют английское происхождение. Английский и французский — официальные языки страны. Другой большой этнической группой являются немцы, ирландцы и шотландцы.
Австралия — единственная страна в мире, которая является континентом. Это шестая по величине страна и самый маленький континент. Официальное название страны — Австралийский Союз. Австралийский Союз — это федерация штатов. В Австралии шесть штатов и две территории. Австралия — конституционная монархия, как и Великобритания. Британский монарх, королева Елизавета II, является также королевой и главой правительства Австралии. Но королева не имеет больших полномочий в австралийском правительстве. Новая Зеландия — островная страна в юго-западной части Тихого Океана. Новая Зеландия принадлежит большой группе островов, называющихся Полинезия.
Страна расположена на двух главных островах — Северном и Южном. Веллингтон — столица Новой Зеландии. Английский — официальный язык Новой Зеландии, и на нем говорят по всей стране.
Новая Зеландия — конституционная монархия. Британский монарх, королева Соединенного Королевства Елизавета II, — монарх Новой Зеландии. Британия провозгласила в Новой Зеландии конституцию в 1852 году. В Новой Зеландии один из самых высоких уровней жизни в мире. Экономика Новой Зеландии зависит от торговли со многими странами — Австралией, Британией, США. (No Ratings Yet)
Дорогой ученик! В этом материале подготовлен рассказ про англоговорящие страны. Под английским текстом есть перевод на русский язык.
The United Kingdom 🇬🇧
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. There are 64 million people in Great Britain whose first language is English (98% of population) . London is the capital of the United Kingdom. London is one of the largest financial centres in the world.
The USA 🇺🇸
The history of the USA started with the Thirteen British Colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. On July 4, 1776 they declared independence and formed the United States of America.
Today the country consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. It is one of the most developed countries in the world. English is the first language for about 78% of its population .
Canada is a country in North America. It is the second largest country in the world. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. The official languages of the country are English and French. English is the mother tongue of 56% of Canadians .
The population of Canada is about 38 million people (2021). Most of the population lives not far from the border with the United States. The largest cities of the country are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
Australia is a country comprising the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world’s sixth-largest country by total area.
Australia’s capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. Today the country is among the most developed countries in the world, with 73% of the population speaking Australian English.
New Zealand 🇳🇿
New Zealand occupies two large islands and many small ones in the south-western part of the Pacific Ocean. New Zealand’s capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.
New Zealand is one of the most beautiful countries in the world with unique flora and fauna. English is the predominant language and a de facto official language of New Zealand. Almost the entire population speak it either as native speakers or proficiently as a second language.
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English-speaking countries – Англоговорящие страны
The popularity of the English language
There are over 300 million people in the world speaking English. English is used as an official language (along with a few others) in many international organisations, such as UN and IOC. This language is recognized as the state language in a lot of countries all over the world.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. There are 64 million people in Great Britain whose first language is English (97% of population). London, the capital of Great Britain, is one of the leading global cities. It is the political, economic and cultural centre of the country. Great Britain has always been a Great Power and contributed a lot to the development of new territories.
The history of the USA started with 13 British colonies set along the Atlantic coast. On July, 4, 1776 they proclaimed their independence from Great Britain. Today the country consists of 50 states and the federal District of Columbia, where Washington, the capital of the USA, is located. It is one of the most developed countries in the world, with English being the first language for about 80% of its population.
The first European colonists came to this country from France. But after that for many years Canada was under British rule until the country gained its independence in the XX century. There are two official languages in Canada. English is the first language for nearly 70% of Canadians. Canada is the second largest country in the world with rich oil, coal and natural gas fields.
Australia is the only country in the world which occupies the whole continent. The exploration of the continent began in the late XVIII century when the first British colonies were formed. Australia was a place where prisoners were serving their sentences in exile. Today the country is among the most developed countries in the world, with 80% of the population speaking Australian English.
New Zealand occupies two large islands and many small ones in the south-western part of the Pacific Ocean. First Europeans started visiting New Zealand in the late XVIII century with the territory being announced as a British colony in 1788. The country gained its independence in the middle of the XX century. New Zealand is one of the most beautiful countries in the world with unique flora and fauna. English is spoken by more than 96% of the population.
Распространенность английского языка
Более 300 миллионов людей во всем мире говорят на английском языке. Английский используется в качестве официального языка (наряду с несколькими другими) во многих международных организациях, таких как ООН и МОК. Этот язык признан государственным во многих странах мира.
Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии включает в себя Англию, Шотландию, Уэльс и Северную Ирландию. В Великобритании английский является родным языком для 64 миллионов человек (97% населения). Лондон, столица Великобритании, является одним из ведущих мировых городов. Это политический, экономический и культурный центр страны. Великобритания всегда была Великой державой и внесла большой вклад в освоение новых территорий.
История США начинается с 13 британских колоний, расположенных вдоль побережья Атлантического океана. 4 июля 1776 года США провозгласили независимость. Сегодня в состав страны входят 50 штатов и федеральный округ Колумбия, где находится Вашингтон – столица США. Это одна из самых развитых стран в мире, в которой английский является родным для 80% населения.
Первые европейские завоеватели прибыли сюда из Франции. Затем долгое время страна находилась под контролем Британии, пока не стала независимой в XX веке. В стране два государственных языка. Английский является родным для 70% канадцев. Канада занимает второе место в мире по площади и обладает богатыми месторождениями нефти, угля и природного газа.
Австралия – единственная страна в мире, занимающая целый континент. Ее освоение началось в конце XVIII века с появлением первых британских колоний. Австралия была местом, куда заключенных ссылали отбывать свое наказание. Сегодня Австралия одна из самых развитых стран в мире, 80% населения которой разговаривает на австралийском варианте английского языка.
Новая Зеландия занимает 2 больших острова и множество маленьких в юго-западной части Тихого океана. Первые европейцы появились в Новой Зеландии в конце XVIII века, а в 1788 году она была объявлена британской колонией. Страна получила независимость в середине XX века. Новая Зеландия – одна из красивейших стран с неповторимой флорой и фауной. На английском языке говорит около 96% населения.
Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are English-speaking countries. They are situated in different parts of the world and differ in many ways. The nature of these countries, their weather and climate and the way of life of their people differ.
Each coutry has its own history, customs, traditions, and its own national holidays. But they all have a common language, English. The United Kindom of Great Britain and North Ireland consist of 4 parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northen Ireland.
The British Isles are group of islands lying off the north-west coast of the continent of Europe. There are no high mountains, no very long rivers, and no large forests in the U.K. The population of the U.K. is almost fifty-six million. Great Britain is a capitalist country.
The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The population of the USA is more than 236 million people. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. In the USA there are two main political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
Canada has area of nearly 10 million square kilometres. It’s westen coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast by the Atlantic Ocean. The population of Canada is over 26 million people. Canada is a capitalist federal state and a member of the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth of Australia territories are the continent of Australia, the island of Tasmania and a number of smaller islands. Australia has an area of nearly eight million square kilometres. The population of Australia is over sixteen million people. The Commonwealth of Australia is a capitalist self-governing federal state.
New Zealand is situated south-east of Australia. The country consists of three large islands called the North Island, the South Island and Stewart Island and also many smaller islands. The population of New Zealand is over three million people. New Zealand is a capitalist self-governing state and a member of the Commonwealth.
- Правовая социализация личности реферат
- Экспрессия генов раковых клеток реферат
- Майкл фарадей и джеймс максвелл реферат
- Интерференция в тонких пленках реферат
- Реферат моя первая учительница
and the Commonwealth of Nations
As the British Empire
began its process of decolonization and the creation of independent states from
former British colonies, there arose a need for an organization of countries
formerly part of the Empire. In 1884, Lord Rosebery, a British politician,
described the changing British Empire as a “Commonwealth of Nations.”
Thus, in 1931, the
British Commonwealth of Nations was founded under the Statute of Westminster
with five initial members – the United Kingdom, Canada, the Irish Free State,
Newfoundland and the Union of South Africa. (Ireland permanently left the
Commonwealth in 1949, Newfoundland became part of Canada in 1949, and South
Africa left in 1961 due to apartheid but rejoined in 1994 as the Republic of
In 1946, the word
“British” was dropped and the organization became known as simply the
Commonwealth of Nations. Australia and New Zealand adopted the Statute in 1942
and 1947, respectively. With India’s independence in 1947, the new country
desired to become a Republic and to not utilize the monarchy as their head of
state. The London Declaration of 1949 modified the requirement that members
must view the monarchy as their head of state to require that countries
recognize the monarchy as simply the leader of the Commonwealth.
With this adjustment,
additional countries joined the Commonwealth as they gained independence from
the United Kingdom so today there are fifty-four member countries. Of the
fifty-four, thirty-three are republics (such as India), five have their own
monarchies (such as Brunei Darussalam), and sixteen are a constitutional
monarchy with the sovereign of the United Kingdom as their head of state (such
as Canada and Australia).
The Commonwealth of
Nations is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member
states. All but two (Mozambique and Rwanda) of these countries were formerly
part of the British Empire, out of which it developed. Presently, of the states
that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, three are in Europe, twelve in
North America, one in South America, nineteen in Africa, eight in Asia, and
The population of the 54
member states exceeds two billion, about 30% of the world population (India is
responsible for a majority of the Commonwealth’s population).
The member states
co-operate within a framework of common values and goals as outlined in the
Singapore Declaration. These include the promotion of democracy, human rights,
good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free
trade, multilateralism and world peace. The Commonwealth is not a political
union, but an intergovernmental organisation through which countries with
diverse social, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in
Its activities are
carried out through the permanent Commonwealth Secretariat, headed by the
Secretary-General, and biennial meetings between Commonwealth Heads of
Government. The symbol of their free association is the Head of the Commonwealth,
which is a ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth
II is also monarch, separately and independently, of sixteen Commonwealth
members, which are known as the “Commonwealth realms”.
Secretary General is
elected by the Heads of Government of the membership and can serve two
four-year terms. The position of Secretary General was established in 1965. The
Commonwealth Secretariat has its headquarters in London and is composed of 320
staff members from the member countries. The Commonwealth maintains its own
flag. The purpose of the voluntary Commonwealth is for international
cooperation and to advance economics, social development, and human rights in
member countries. Decisions of the various Commonwealth councils are non-binding.
The Commonwealth of
Nations supports the Commonwealth Games, which is a sporting event held every
four years for member countries.
A Commonwealth Day is
celebrated on the second Monday in March. Each year carries a different theme
but each country can celebrate the day as they choose.
The flag of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth Member Countries
The Head of the
Commonwealth – Queen Elizabeth II
Countries Participating in
Commonwealth Games 2010, New Delhi
Ceremony of the Commonwealth Games 2010, Delhi
связи с распадом колониальной системы и появлением независимых
государств – возникла необходимость в создании организации стран
бывших колоний Британской Империи. В 1884 году лорд Розбери, британский
политик назвал изменившуюся Империю “Содружество Наций”.Так в 1931 году
было основано Британское Содружество Наций , в которое вошли первые пять
стран: Соединенное Королевство, Канада Свободное Ирландское государство
Ньюфаундленд Союз Южной Африки (Ирландия вышла из СН в 1949 Ньюфаундленд
вошел в состав Канады в 1949 и Южная Африка вышла из СН из-за апартеида в
1961и вновь вернулась
1946 году организация стала называться просто Содружество Наций. Австралия и
Новая Зеландия вошли в ее состав в 1942 и 1947 гг. Получив независимость в
1947г. Индия стала республикой и не желала иметь британского монарха в
качестве главы страны. В 1949г. была принята Лондонская Декларация, которая
призвала страны СН признать монарха не как главу страны, а как главу
Содружества. Воспользовавшись этими изменениями новые страны, получившие
неэависимость от Соединенного Королевства , вступили в организацию. Сегодня в
его состав входят 54 государства. Из 54 стран 33 республики, 5 монархий и 16
конституционных монархий с британским монархом во главе государтва (Канада,
Наций – межправительственная организация пятидесяти четырех государств. Все
кроме двух стран (Руанда, Мозамбик) прежде были частью Британской Империи. В
настоящее время из стран Содружества
находятся в Европе, двенадцать в Северной Америке, одна в Южной
девятнадцать в Африке и восемь в Азии.
СН превышает 2 млрд. человек, что составляет 30% мирового населения.
– члены Содружества сотрудничают в рамках общих ценностей и целей,
сформулированных в Сингапурской Декларации. Они включают в себя :развитие
демократии, защиту прав человека, управление , свободу личности , свободу
торговли, многостороннее сотрудничество ,укрепление мира .Содружество – это не
политический союз, а межправительственная организация, в которой страны с
разным уровнем социального политического и экономического развития равны по
СН осуществляется через Секретариат, возглавляемый Генеральным Секретарем и
встречи Глав правительств стран Содружества. Символом организации является
Глава Содружества, представленная Королевой Елизаветой II.
Елизавета II является монархом 16
стран – членов СН. Генеральный Секретарь СН избирается Главами правительств
два четырехлетних срока . Положение о Генеральном Секретаре было принято в
1965 году. Секретариат СН имеет штаб – квартиру в Лондоне и состоит из 350
членов. Организация СН имеет свой флаг. Цель этой добровольной организации:
международное сотрудничество, социальное и экономическое развитие, защита прав
человека в странах – членах СН
четыре года СН проводит Игры Содружества – спортивные соревнования среди стран
– членов организации. День Содружества отмечается каждый второй понедельник
- Французский язык
- Английский язык
- Детские презентации
- Немецкий язык
- Окружающий мир
- Русский язык
- Шаблоны, фоны, картинки для презентаций
The aims of the lesson:To revise the
II.Checing up the home task:-Now, children let’s
III.Association: 1.Divide these words into three group
2.Work with the pictures:What are they?
3.Fill in the gaps with a verb
4.Do you know them? What are their names? What do they do?
5.“Numbers say”: make the sentences with this numbers4244 100190013016mln57mln275300055008625183019971991
IV. Conclusion:-Who is the head of Kazakhstan?-What
The aims of the lesson:To revise the earlier studied material, to give more information about the countries, nationalities and languages;To improve student’s communication skills by expressing opinions, interviewing each other, to develop their speaking, reading habits;
Слайд 2The aims of the lesson:
To revise the earlier studied material, to
give more information about the countries, nationalities and languages;
To improve student’s communication skills by expressing opinions, interviewing each other, to develop their speaking, reading habits;
To develop the student’s interest for the language and to educate to love our Motherland;
The type of the lesson: revision lesson of
Visual aids: pictures on the theme
“Kazakhstan and The UK”
The procedure of the lesson:
– Good afternoon students.I’m glad to see you.Sit down, please.
-Who is on duty today?
-Who is absent?
-What date is it today?
-What is the weather like today?
-Do you feel like working? If you are ready I shall begin our lesson.
Слайд 4II.Checing up the home task:
-Now, children let’s check up your home
task.What as your home task?Who is ready for the lesson?Your home task was Ex 3pg 131.You must be answer the questions by the text.
1.It was opened in 1827
2.There are more than 8000 animals in the Zoo.
3.The elephants have the biggest appetite.
4.It consists of hay, grass, linseed cakes, cabbages, carrots, potatoes, dates, salt, vitamins and minerals.
5.Every day you can watch animals being fed, for instance snakes, lions and seal.
Слайд 5III.Association: 1.Divide these words into three group according to their meaning
French, Japan, Turkish, Arabic, Bengali, Spain, Portugese, Great Britain, English, Brazil, Kazakh, Russia, Spanish, France, Hindi, Kazakhstan.
Слайд 62.Work with the pictures:What are they?
Слайд 73.Fill in the gaps with a verb form from the box.
many parts does the UK________?
2.She ____________to come to the meeting today.
3.People of different nationality ________different languages.
4.The West coast of the country is ___________ the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
5.The Republic of Kazakhstan is ____________ in the Central Asia.
6.Oceans and seas wash them and ____________ them from each other.
has been told speak are situated washed by separated consists of
Слайд 84.Do you know them? What are their names? What do they
Слайд 95.“Numbers say”: make the sentences with this numbers
Слайд 10IV. Conclusion:
-Who is the head of Kazakhstan?
-What river is Astana situated
-How many regions are there in Kazakhstan?
-Who is the head of the UK?
-What river is London situated on?
-The national emblem of England is ___.
-What is national emblem of Kazakhstan?
-What about the population of Kazakhstan and The UK?
V.Home task: Read the task “Astana” and answer the questions below.