The queen of great britain реферат

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Queen – the head of state. The role of the Queen in the political and social life. Queen in Parliament – the official name of the British legal system. The monarch as “supreme leader” of the Anglican Church and the Supreme Commander of the army.

Категория: География и экономическая география
Предмет: Geography
Вид: реферат

< География и экономическая география

is the Queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of
Nations. She is Head of the Commonwealth and Supreme Governor of the
Church of England. Elizabeth was born in London and
educated privately at home. Elizabeth is the first child of Prince
Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), and his wife, Elizabeth,
Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth).
was born by Caesarean section at 2.40 am (GMT) on 21 April 1926 at
her maternal grandfather’s London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.
was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang,
in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,
named Elizabeth after her mother.

only sibling, Princess Margaret, was four years younger. The two
princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their
mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known
as “Crawfie”. Lessons concentrated on history, language,
literature and music. In
1950 Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret’s
childhood years entitled The Little Princesses, much to the dismay of
the royal family. The
book describes Elizabeth’s love of horses and dogs, her orderliness
and her attitude of responsibility.

her grandfather’s reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of
succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales,
and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public
interest, she was not expected to become Queen, as the Prince of
Wales was still young and many assumed that he would marry and have
children of his own. In
1936, when her grandfather, George V, died and her uncle succeeded as
Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her
father. In
1943, at the age of 16, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public
appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been
appointed Colonel the previous year. As she approached her 18th
birthday, the law was changed so that she could act as one of five
Counsellors of State in the event of her father’s incapacity or
absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.
1947 Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour, accompanying
her parents through southern Africa

met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934
and 1937. Before
the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, converted
from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant
Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother’s British
family. Just
before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the
style His Royal Highness. Elizabeth
and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey.
They received 2500 wedding gifts from around the world.
gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948.
second child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950. Because of death of
his father , she had to stay The Queen.
the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation went ahead, as
Mary had asked before she died, taking place as planned on 2 June
1953. The
ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing
and communion, was televised for the first time.
Queen witnessed, over her life, the continued transformation of the
British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations. By the time of her
accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states
was already established. Spanning 1953–54, the Queen and her
husband embarked on a six-month around-the-world tour. She became the
first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those
nations. During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the
population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.Throughout
her reign, the Queen has undertaken state visits to foreign countries
and tours of Commonwealth ones and she is the most widely travelled
head of state in history. In
1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she
addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the
Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian
parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a
parliamentary session. In
1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.
1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession.
1991, in the wake of victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the
first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States
Congress. In
a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark the 40th anniversary of her
accession, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis, meaning
horrible year. In
2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee as Queen. Her sister and
mother died in February and March respectively, and the media
speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.
generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole
surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the
new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been
troubling her since the summer. The
Queen addressed the United Nations for a second time in 2010, again
in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the
Commonwealth. The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her
as “an anchor for our age”. During her visit to New York,
which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial
garden for the British victims of the 11 September attacks. The
Queen’s visit to Australia in October 2011, her 16th since 1954, was
called her “farewell tour” in the press because of her age.
Diamond Jubilee in 2012 marked 60 years as Queen, with celebrations
throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond.
Queen opened the 2012 Summer Olympics on 27 July and the Paralympics
on 29 August 2012 in London, making her the first head of state to
open two Olympic Games in two different countries (she also opened
the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal).
Queen became the longest-lived British monarch in 2007 and, if she is
still reigning on 9 September 2015, will surpass her
great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, as the longest-reigning
British monarch.


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Queen of Great Britain (реферат, курсовая, диплом, контрольная)

Queen of Great Britain.

Prepared Kayakin Andrew.

Pupil 6 class A.

MOУ COШ № 1.

Name A.K. Prosoedova.


Queen — the head of state. It brings its share of political and social life of the country, performing the duties imposed on it by law, by participating in a variety of ceremonies and representing the UK worldwide. Queen Elizabeth II is also head of the Commonwealth.

1. The role of the Queen in a state.

The Queen is the constitutional monarch, ie its power is limited by rules and laws and therefore it can not govern as ruled by the Russian tsars. The Queen does not take part in the legislative process and the process of governance. This makes for her numerous government apparatus. Even speech that says the Queen on holidays or important public events, written entirely in the government. The Queen is a symbol of unity and stability of the UK, as well as many countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations.

2. Queen in Parliament.

Restrictions on the power of monarchs began to be imposed at the beginning of the thirteenth century, when English nobles forced King John to accept a document entitled «Magna Carta» (Magna Carta) that she, too, have certain rights. Constitutional Monarchy in the form in which we know it today developed and strengthened in the 18th and 19th centuries, when control passed into the hands of the Cabinet of Ministers, who were appointed from the elected parliament. «The Queen in Parliament — the official name of the British legal system, which consists of the Queen, the House of Lords and House of Commons. House of Commons, the majority of whose members usually support the ruling party, has the greatest political power. The Queen is obliged by the Council of Ministers approve all Billy. The role of the Queen in the creation of new or changing old law is now a mere formality, but behind it there is a right to express their opinion. System «Queen in Parliament» is most clearly demonstrated in the annual opening of the new session of Parliament, when the Queen arrives in person to parliament and a speech addressed to both Houses. This speech written by the government, contains the Government’s proposals for the parliament in the upcoming session and lists bills that it would be desirable to consider and adopt. Prior to the speech utterance Parliament can not begin its work. The Queen and the Privy Council (The Privy Council) Privy Council — the oldest active form of the Legislative Assembly; its roots are drawn from the Court Norman kings, which held its meetings in secret. Until the 17th century monarch and the Privy Council constituted government, and the role of parliament was to allocate money for the state and monarchic needs. Nowadays, the Privy Council has limited powers, for example, on the advice of its members Queen formally approves a large number of laws issued by decree of the Queen and the past without a hearing in Parliament (Orders in Council), and it performs certain judicial functions. A total of 400 state secret advisers, consisting of all members of the Cabinet, some other ministers, leaders of opposition parties in parliament, senior judges and some officials from the Commonwealth.

3. Queen and church.

In the UK officially operate two churches: Anglican Church (the Church of England) in England and the Scottish church (the Church of Scotland) in Scotland. In Northern Ireland and Wales, registered state religion. The country has a law under which proclaimed religious tolerance as representatives of other religions and confessions and atheists. The full title of Queen includes the words «Defender of the Faith» (‘Defender of the Faith’). Monarch is obliged to adhere to the Anglican faith, as it is the «supreme ruler» of the Anglican Church. As is the case with other public and government bodies, the Queen appoints bishops and archbishops on the advice of the Prime Minister, who, in turn, is considering a list provided by the Church Commission. Archbishops and bishops sit in the House of Lords, where they spend and take various measures and canons of the church, which once again shows the relationship between church and state. Unlike the Church of England, the Queen is an ordinary member of the Church of Scotland, not the head. With the ascent to the throne she vows to keep the Church of Scotland, which is independent from the government.

4. Queen and the army.

queen parliament church army.

Monarch is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, and only he can declare war and make peace. However, in 1689 the monarch can not itself declare war without the consent of Parliament and ministers. The Queen, however, takes an active part in the affairs of the army, and she, like many members of the royal family, is an active officer in the ranks of the British Armed Forces. In addition to the actual title of the queen and her family members have honorary military rank as the UK and some Commonwealth countries.

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Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1952. In addition she is head of the Commonwealth.

Elizabeth was born on 21 April 1926 in London, the first child of Albert, Duke of York (Герцог Йоркский), and his wife, formerly Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. She initially had little prospect of succeeding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in December 1936. Her father then became George VI and she became heir.

Elizabeth and her younger sister Margaret were educated at home. On the outbreak of war in 1939, they were evacuated to Windsor Castle. In 1945, Elizabeth joined the war effort, training as a driver in the Women’s Auxiliary Territorial Service (WATS) (Женская вспомогательная территориальная служба (существовала во время 2-й мировой войны)). In November 1947, she married a distant cousin, Philip Mountbatten (formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark), who was created duke of Edinburgh. The couple have four children.

George VI died on 6 February 1952 while Elizabeth and Philip were in Kenya. She returned home immediately, and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in June 1953. For more than 50 years, during a period of great change in Britain, the queen has carried out her political duties as head of state, the ceremonial responsibilities of the sovereign and a large annual programme of visits in the United Kingdom as well as numerous foreign tours.

Despite the controversies and scandals surrounding her children and other members of the royal family, she remains a respected head of state (глава государства (в парламентских системах: официальное лицо, представляющее государство, но не осуществляющее политическую власть; в президентских системах может являться также и главой исполнительной власти)). In 2002, Elizabeth celebrated her golden jubilee (50 years on the throne) and in 2006 her 80th birthday.

The Queen meets thousands of people each year in the UK and overseas. Before meeting Her Majesty, many people ask how they should behave. The simple answer is that there are no obligatory codes of behaviour – just courtesy.

However, many people wish to observe the traditional forms of greeting.

For men this is a neck bow (from the head only) whilst women do a small curtsy. Other people prefer simply to shake hands in the usual way.

On presentation to The Queen, the correct formal address is ‘Your Majesty’ and subsequently ‘Ma’am’.

You can write to Her Majesty at the following address:

Her Majesty The Queen

Buckingham Palace

London SW1A 1AA

If you wish to write a formal letter, you can open with ‘Madam’ and close the letter with the form ‘I have the honour to be, Madam, Your Majesty’s humble and obedient servant’.

This traditional approach is by no means obligatory. You should feel free to write in whatever style you feel comfortable.

​Королева Елизавета (Queen Elizabeth) топик по-английскому рассказывает о действующем монархе Великобритании – Елизавете II. Граждане Великобритании очень любят свою королеву, для многих людей эта сильная женщина является примером для подражания. Для многих женщин эта любительница изысканных брошек и необычных шляпок стала иконой стиля.

Изучив топик по-английскому Королева Елизавета (Queen Elizabeth) вы сможете приятно удивить ваших британских собеседников знаниями об этой удивительной женщине. Королева Елизавета (Queen Elizabeth) топик по-английскому расскажет о детстве, личной жизни, а также деятельности королевы в настоящее время. Прочитав Королева Елизавета (Queen Elizabeth) топик по-английскому вы сможете понять, почему для британцев так важна королева Елизавета II.

Текст топика «Queen Elizabeth II»

The full name of Queen Elizabeth is Elizabeth Alexandra Mary. She became queen at the age of 26 after her father King George VI died during his official visit to Kenya in 1952.

The queen of Great Britain participates in various events of symbolic importance and does charity work. The Queen’s job – representing the country is very difficult, because she cannot have a normal lifestyle. But the majority of the British people think that Queen Elizabeth does her job perfectly.

When she was a princess, Elizabeth II tried to lead as «normal» life, as much as it was possible in her situation. She was allowed to play with other children, but she never showed that she was different or better than they were. Elisabeth II even bought shoes for one of her poor friends.

Princess Elizabeth also enjoyed acting. She staged a Christmas pantomime at Windsor with her younger sister Margaret and the children of members of the staff of the Royal Household.

During the Second World War Elizabeth II joined the Armed Forces. She was the first female monarch, who did it. She helped to drive and to repair military trucks. Imagine the picture: the Queen of Great Britain driving or repairing a military truck!

Elizabeth II got married in 1947 to the Duke of Edinburgh, Philip Mountbatten, now Prince Philip, the man who she truly loved and worshiped. When he was young, Prince Philipp was a reckless man: he used to drive his car extremely fast. One day, Elizabeth II and Prince Philipp even got in a car accident. Sometimes Philipp was rude and familiar, his clothes weren’t very tidy and his shoes weren’t always polished. Elizabeth’s family didn’t like Philipp, an her parents were not happy to have Philip as their son-in-law. However, they didn’t want their daughter to be unhappy, so the marriage took place, when the would-be queen was twenty-one. Elizabeth loved Philipp the way he was, for her he was the one.

The Britains love Queen Elizabeth II very much, she is a role model for many people and public figures, because she is always keeping a brave face, inspite of all the difficulties.

Перевод топика «Королева Елизавета II»

Полное имя королевы Елизаветы – Елизавета Александра Мария. Она стала королевой в возрасте 26 лет, после смерти своего отца, короля Георга VI во время официального визита в Кению в 1952 году.

Королева Великобритании принимает участие в различных мероприятиях, имеющих символическое значение, а так же занимается благотворительностью. Работа королевы – являться представителем страны очень тяжелая, потому что она не позволяет вести нормальный образ жизни. Однако, большинство британцев считают, что королева безупречно выполняет свою работу.

Будучи принцессой, Елизавета II пытались вести настолько «нормальную» жизнь, насколько это было возможно в ее положении. Ей было разрешено играть с другими детьми, но она никогда не показывала что она отличалась от них или была лучше. Она даже покупала обувь для одной из своих бедных подруг.

Принцесса Елизавета также увлекалась актерским мастерством. Она поставила пантомиму в Виндзоре на Рождество вместе со своей младшей сестрой Маргарет и детьми членов персонала королевского двора.

Во время Второй мировой войны Елизавета II служила в Вооруженных Силах. Она стала первой женщиной-монархом кто сделал это. Она помогала водить и ремонтировать военные грузовики. Представьте себе картину: королева Великобритании водит или ремонтирует военный грузовик!

Елизавете II вышла замуж в 1947 за герцога Эдинбургского, Филиппа Маунтбаттена, теперь Принца Филиппа, человека, которого она действительно любила и которым восхищалась. В юности Принц Филипп был довольно безрассудным человеком: он водил свою машину слишком быстро. Однажды Елизавета II и Принц Филипп попали в автомобильную аварию. Иногда Филипп вел себя грубо и фамильярно, его одежда не всегда была чистой, а ботинки начищены. Семье Елизаветы не нравился Филипп, а родители были не рады, что Филипп будет их зятем, но они не хотели, чтобы их дочь была несчастной, поэтому брак был заключен, когда будущей королеве был двадцать один год. Елизавета любила Филиппа таким, какой он есть для нее он был единственным.

Британцы очень любят королеву Елизавету, для многих простых и публичных людей она является образцом для подражания, так как всегда сохраняет достоинство несмотря на трудности.