Язык программирования реферат на английском

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Programming Languaguages Essay, Research Paper

Programming Languages

A programming language is a set of English-like instructions that includes a set of rules for putting the instructions together to create commands. A translator changes the English-like commands into numeric code that the computer can understand. The most common type of translator is a compiler. The compiler is program that reads English-like commands in a file and than creates another file containing computer readable numeric code or commands. I will be talking about some of the major functions and uses six high-level programming languages.

Java was developed by Sun MicroSystems and released in 1995. Java is based on C and C++ and incorporates many features object-oriented languages. It is a compiled language, but it?s code output is interpreted. This makes Java ideal for cross-development. The downside to its interpreted code is speed. Java?s object-oriented is fundamental, and all code and data in a Java program exist within the object-oriented class. Java?s exception handiling with try, catch, and throw statements provide the solution for writing reliable code that responds to all possible error conditions. Another advantage of Java is a String class that does away with null-terminated, length byte and other types of strings. It is also multithreaded which a class can easily provide code that runs concurrently with other programing. Another advantage is the lack of a pointer-type data and memory management which tends to be a very bug-prone area. Memory is organized by Java?s virtual machine garbage collector. Java provides a rich class library in beavery bug-prone area. Memory is organized by Java?s virtual machine garbage collector. Java provides a rich class library in the forms of packages imported into modules. Since Java is interpreted locally on the user?s system, a security manager can completely control disk access, window creation, and memory management.

C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labortories in 1972. C was originally designed as symbolic code that formalized programming prasctices used at the time. In 1978 C blossomed into what was to become the most popular programming language ever. C offers programmers three advantages: The first is general pourpose programming which allows you to write games, business software, utilities, mathematical models, wordprocessors, spredsheets, and other kinds of software. The second is structured programming which means it uses structured statements such as while and for loops in place of goto statements that are easily misused. Third is that its a standardized programming language, which is ANSI C, the reconized standard for programming language.

C++ was developed by Bjnarnte Strounstrip in the early 80?s at Bell Labortories. It is an object-oriented programming language which contains three elements: First is encapsulation which extends the capacity of modularity. Second is polymorphism which is the use of a name or symbol. Third is inheritance which allows the designer to take existing objects and create new ones that inherit the properties of an earlier object. Objects are created in C++ through the mechanism of the class which is a data type similar to the C structure. However it differs from the C structure in many important ways. The most important is that it not only contains varible numbers, but also function numbers which are the methods that act on the varible numbers. C++ class also contains two basic sections, a private section and a public section. A private sectons is parts of a class that are available to member functions but that cannot be accessed from outside the function. A public section defines the interface between the class object and the rest of the program. The class data type is the focus of C++, everyting in the language revolves around this user-defined data type. C++ is a evolutionary step up from C, much of it?s syntax is identical to that of C. Some of the basic features and syntax that are shared by both are The Main( ) function, the use of function arguments,arithmetic and logical operators, control and looping statement,

Bit wise communication, and basic data types.

Visual basic evolved from BASIC. It was created by Microsoft Corporation in 1991. Visual basic is an example of a graphical-based language which allows the user to directly work with graphics. It is created in an Integrated Development Enviorment (IDE). IDE allows the programmer to run, debug, and create Visual basic programs convienietly. It also allows programmers to make programs in fraction of the time it would normally take. Visual basic is also the most widely used Rapid Application Development language which is the process of rapidly creating an application. Its an event-driven language that does not follow a defined sequence of instructions. It responds to events to execute different sets of instructions depending on which event occurs. Visual basic is also an object-oriented language, it uses identifiable shapes, each of which has certain properties and can respond to a variety of events.

Cobol is a programming language especially aimed at solving business problems and can be used as a solution to many data processing problems. Cobol was developed by the conference on Data Systems Languages convened in 1959 byu te Department of Defense. Approximatly 90% of all Cobol code runs in character based enviorment and contains no grahics. A Cobol program is made up of four mandatory divisions: The Identification division which marks the beginning of a Cobol program. Second is the Enviorment division which contains statements or commands to describe the physical enviorment in which Cobol is running. Third the Data division which contains statements describing the data used by the program. Lastly the Procedure division which contains the Cobol statements that the program will execute after

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Интересная статья: Основы написания курсовой работы

The process of writing pro­gram instructions is called coding.
The instructions will be writ­ten on a form called a coding form.
The instructions we write will be recorded in a machine-readable form
using a keypunch, key-to-tape, or key-to-disk, or entered directly
into computer memory through a terminal keyboard.

The instructions must be written according to a set of rules. These
rules are the foundation of a programming lan­guage. Programming
languages have progressed from machine-oriented languages that use
strings of binary Is and Os to prob-lem-oriented languages that use
common mathematical and/or English terms.

There are over 200 problem-oriented languages. The most common of


COBOL was the most widely used business-oriented pro­gramming
language. Its name is an acronym for Common busi­ness-Oriented
language. COBOL was designed to solve prob­lems that are oriented
toward data handling and input-output operations


The FORTRAN IV language is oriented toward solving prob­lems of a
mathematical nature. The name FORTRAN comes from the combination of
the words formula translation. The version of FORTRAN TV has been
designed as algebra-based programming language.


It was developed in Dartmouth College as an easy-to-learn programming
language for students and inexpe­rienced programmers. Its key
design goal is simplicity. BASIC has become a very popular language
in systems where many users share the use of a computer through
terminals and it has become a universal language for personal


PASCAL was invented in 1970 by Professor Niklaus Wlrth of Zurich,
Switzerland. It was named alter die mathematician Blaise Pascal, who
invented one of the earliest practical calcu­lators. PASCAL is a
mathematically oriented programming lan­guage and, as such, is
most commonly used in.mathematics, engineering, and computer science
departments of colleges and universities.

My future profession.

Hi! Nowadays being an educated person is very important. To get my
profession I study in USATU on the faculty of informatics and
robotics. I learn GeoInformational systems. It includes : geodesy ,
cartography or map creation stuff, programming, and many other thing
that concern Earth. I like studying here very much , because I think
that it’s very interesting to know about the planet you live on.
And I’m also excited with map creation . People will use maps
created by me or my mates. So I will study hard to improve my
knowledge. I want to became a real specialist in the field of map
production. And I hope that what I’ve learnt here will be useful to
all people. That ‘s how I see my future profession. (Good Luck My
Sweety) .

The Internet.

Hi! At the moment the Internet plays a very big role in the sphere of
information. The Internet binds continents, people from very distant
countries. It provides an fast message transfer. It takes only
seconds to message delivery. Could people imagine such stuff even 50
years ago. Surely not. The Internet allows you to find any
information you need on the web. You just have to know how and where
to look for. Several clicks and you got it. The Internet offers you
on-line shops. You can buy anything you wish. You don’t even have
to leave your home. Everything will be delivered to your door. You
can virtually visit museums, concerts, galleries.

You can watch movies , listen to music, watch stars through the
telescope. So the Internet offers us a vast number of things . And
that’s why I like it for. (Let’s have fun baby) .

Programming is a way of sending instructions to the computer. To create these instructions, programmers use programming languages to create source code, and the source code is then converted into machine (or object) code, the only language that a computer understands. People, however, have difficulty understanding machine code. As a result, first assembly languages and then higher-level languages were developed. Programming languages require that information be provided in a certain order and structure, that symbols be used, and sometimes even that punctuation
Be used. These rules are called the syntax of the programming language, and they vary a great deal from one language to another.
Categories of Languages.
Based on evolutionary history, programming languages fall into one of the following three broad categories:
Machine Languages. Machine languages consist of the 0s and 1s of the binary number system and are defined by hardware design. A computer understands only its machine language – the commands in its instruction set that instruct the computer to perform elementary operations such as loading, storing, adding, and subtracting.
Assembly Languages. These languages were developed by using Englishlike mnemonics. Programmers worked in text editors to create their source files.
To convert the source files into object code, researchers created translator programs called assemblers. Assembly languages are still much easier to use than machine language.
Higher-Level Languages. These languages use syntax that is close to human language, they use familiar words instead of communicating in digits. To express computer operations, they use operators, such as the plus or minus sign, that are the familiar components of mathematics. As a result, reading, writing, and understanding computer programs is easier.
Machine languages are considered first-generation languages, and assembly languages are considered second-generation

languages. The higher-level languages began with the third generation. Third-generation languages (3GLs) can support structured programming, use true English-like phrasing, make it easier for programmers to share in the development of programs. Besides, they are portable, that is, you can put the source code and a compiler or interpreter on practically any computer and create working object code. Some of the third-generation languages
Include the following: FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C, C++, Java, ActiveX.
Fourth-generation languages (4GLs) use either a text environment, much like a 3GL, or a visual environment. In the text environment, the programmer uses English-like words when generating source code. In a 4GL visual environment, the programmer uses a toolbar to drag and drop various items like buttons, labels, and text boxes to create a visual definition of an application. Many 4GLs are databaseaware;
That is, you can build programs with a 4GL that work as front end (an interface that hides much of the program from the user) to databases. Programmers can also use 4GLs to develop prototypes of an application quickly. Some of the fourthgeneration languages are Visual Basic and Visual Age.
A 5GL would use artificial intelligence to create software based on your description of what the software should do.


Programming languages

Реферат по английскому языку на тему «Языки программирования»

Описание материала:
Реферат «Programming languages» о различных языках программирования, на английском языке.
Входит в состав сборника рефератов на английском на компьютерную тематику

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  • Год: 2002
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